The molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of Trypanosoma cruzi and parallel research on Leishmania: looking back and to the future.


Miles, MA; Llewellyn, MS; Lewis, MD; Yeo, M; Baleela, R; Fitzpatrick, S; Gaunt, MW; Mauricio, IL; (2009) The molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of Trypanosoma cruzi and parallel research on Leishmania: looking back and to the future. Parasitology, 136 (12). pp. 1509-28. ISSN 0031-1820 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182009990977

[img]
Preview
Text - Published Version
License:

Download (543kB) | Preview

Abstract

Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan agent of Chagas disease, and the most important parasitic disease in Latin America. Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are global agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, fatal and disfiguring diseases. In the 1970s multilocus enzyme electrophoresis demonstrated that T. cruzi is a heterogeneous complex. Six zymodemes were described, corresponding with currently recognized lineages, TcI and TcIIa-e--now defined by multiple genetic markers. Molecular epidemiology has substantially resolved the phylogeography and ecological niches of the T. cruzi lineages. Genetic hybridization has fundamentally influenced T. cruzi evolution and epidemiology of Chagas disease. Genetic exchange of T. cruzi in vitro involves fusion of diploids and genome erosion, producing aneuploid hybrids. Transgenic fluorescent clones are new tools to elucidate molecular genetics and phenotypic variation. We speculate that pericardial sequestration plays a role in pathogenesis. Multilocus sequence typing, microsatellites and, ultimately, comparative genomics are improving understanding of T. cruzi population genetics. Similarly, in Leishmania, genetic groups have been defined, including epidemiologically important hybrids; genetic exchange can occur in the sand fly vector. We describe the profound impact of this parallel research on genetic diversity of T. cruzi and Leishmania, in the context of epidemiology, taxonomy and disease control.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Pathogen Molecular Biology
Research Centre: Leishmaniasis Group
Neglected Tropical Diseases Network
PubMed ID: 19691868
Web of Science ID: 270207900015
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/4944

Statistics


Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads since deposit
628Downloads
354Hits
Accesses by country - last 12 months
Accesses by referrer - last 12 months
Impact and interest
Additional statistics for this record are available via IRStats2

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item