The Rising Dominance of Shigella sonnei: An Intercontinental Shift in the Etiology of Bacillary Dysentery.


Thompson, CN; Duy, PT; Baker, S; (2015) The Rising Dominance of Shigella sonnei: An Intercontinental Shift in the Etiology of Bacillary Dysentery. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 9 (6). e0003708. ISSN 1935-2727 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003708

[img] Text - Published Version
License:

Download (804kB)

Abstract

Shigellosis is the major global cause of dysentery. Shigella sonnei, which has historically been more commonly isolated in developed countries, is undergoing an unprecedented expansion across industrializing regions in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. The precise reasons underpinning the epidemiological distribution of the various Shigella species and this global surge in S. sonnei are unclear but may be due to three major environmental pressures. First, natural passive immunization with the bacterium Plesiomonas shigelloides is hypothesized to protect populations with poor water supplies against S. sonnei. Improving the quality of drinking water supplies would, therefore, result in a reduction in P. shigelloides exposure and a subsequent reduction in environmental immunization against S. sonnei. Secondly, the ubiquitous amoeba species Acanthamoeba castellanii has been shown to phagocytize S. sonnei efficiently and symbiotically, thus allowing the bacteria access to a protected niche in which to withstand chlorination and other harsh environmental conditions in temperate countries. Finally, S. sonnei has emerged from Europe and begun to spread globally only relatively recently. A strong selective pressure from localized antimicrobial use additionally appears to have had a dramatic impact on the evolution of the S. sonnei population. We hypothesize that S. sonnei, which exhibits an exceptional ability to acquire antimicrobial resistance genes from commensal and pathogenic bacteria, has a competitive advantage over S. flexneri, particularly in areas with poorly regulated antimicrobial use. Continuing improvement in the quality of global drinking water supplies alongside the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance predicts the burden and international distribution of S. sonnei will only continue to grow. An effective vaccine against S. sonnei is overdue and may become one of our only weapons against this increasingly dominant and problematic gastrointestinal pathogen.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Pathogen Molecular Biology
PubMed ID: 26068698
Web of Science ID: 357398100006
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2210866

Statistics


Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads since deposit
189Downloads
257Hits
Accesses by country - last 12 months
Accesses by referrer - last 12 months
Impact and interest
Additional statistics for this record are available via IRStats2

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item