Identification and lineage genotyping of South American trypanosomes using fluorescent fragment length barcoding


Hamilton, PB; Lewis, MD; Cruickshank, C; Gaunt, MW; Yeo, M; Llewellyn, MS; Valente, SA; da Silva, FM; Stevens, JR; Miles, MA; Teixeira, MMG; (2011) Identification and lineage genotyping of South American trypanosomes using fluorescent fragment length barcoding. Infection, genetics and evolution, 11 (1). pp. 44-51. ISSN 1567-1348 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2010.10.012

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Abstract

Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli are human-infective blood parasites, largely restricted to Central and South America. They also infect a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and are transmitted by a numerous species of triatomine bugs. There are significant overlaps in the host and geographical ranges of both species. The two species consist of a number of distinct phylogenetic lineages. A range of PCR-based techniques have been developed to differentiate between these species and to assign their isolates into lineages. However, the existence of at least six and five lineages within T. cruzi and T. rangeli, respectively, makes identification of the full range of isolates difficult and time consuming. Here we have applied fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB) to the problem of identifying and genotyping T. cruzi, T. rangeli and other South American trypanosomes. This technique discriminates species on the basis of length polymorphism of regions of the rDNA locus. FFLB was able to differentiate many trypanosome species known from South American mammals: T. cruzi cruzi. T. cruzi marinkellei, T. dionisii-like, T. evansi, T. lewisi, T. rangeli, T. theileri and T. vivax. Furthermore, all five T. rangeli lineages and many T. cruzi lineages could be identified, except the hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI that could not be distinguished from lineages III and II respectively. This method also allowed identification of mixed infections of T. cruzi and T. rangeli lineages in naturally infected triatomine bugs. The ability of FFLB to genotype multiple lineages of T. cruzi and T. rangeli together with other trypanosome species, using the same primer sets is an advantage over other currently available techniques. Overall, these results demonstrate that FFLB is a useful method for species diagnosis, genotyping and understanding the epidemiology of American trypanosomes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Co-infection, Genetic diversity, Vector, Chagas disease, Protozoa, Kinetoplastid, POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION, RURAL NORTHWESTERN ARGENTINA, MAJOR, PHYLOGENETIC LINEAGES, CONGENITAL CHAGAS-DISEASE, BRAZILIAN AMAZON, MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY, SYLVATIC MAMMALS, TRIATOMINE BUGS, CRUZI, INFECTION, RIBOSOMAL-RNA
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Pathogen Molecular Biology
Research Centre: Neglected Tropical Diseases Network
PubMed ID: 21029792
Web of Science ID: 286558800007
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/1280

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