High-prevalence and high-estimated incidence of HIV infection among new injecting drug users in Estonia: need for large scale prevention programs


Uuskula, A; Kals, M; Rajaleid, K; Abel, K; Talu, A; Ruutel, K; Platt, L; Rhodes, T; Dehovitz, J; Jarlais, DD; (2008) High-prevalence and high-estimated incidence of HIV infection among new injecting drug users in Estonia: need for large scale prevention programs. Journal of public health (Oxford, England), 30 (2). pp. 119-125. ISSN 1741-3842 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdn014

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Abstract

Objective To examine HIV risk behavior and HIV infection among new injectors in Tallinn, Estonia. Design and methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys of injecting drug users (IDUs) recruited from a syringe exchange program (N = 162, Study 1) or using respondent driven sampling (N = 350, Study 2). Behavioral surveys were administered; serum samples were collected for HIV testing. Subjects were categorized into new injectors (injecting <= 3 years) and long-term injectors (injecting > 3 years). Results Twenty-eight of 161 (17%, Study 1) and 73/350 (21%, Study 2) of the study subjects were new injectors. HIV infection was substantial among the newer injectors: HIV prevalence was 50% (Study 1) and 34% (Study 2), and estimated HIV incidence 31/100 PY and 21/100 PY, respectively. In Study 2, new injectors were more likely to be female and ethnic Estonian and less likely to be injecting daily compared with long-term injectors. No significant difference was found among two groups on sharing injecting equipment or reported number of sexual partners. Conclusions A continuing HIV epidemic among new injectors is of critical public health concern. Interventions to prevent initiation into injecting drug use and scaling up HIV prevention programs for IDUs in Estonia are of utmost importance.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Estonia, HIV, IDU, injection drug use, new injecting drug users, HEPATITIS-C VIRUS, RISK BEHAVIORS, SOVIET-UNION, LONG-TERM, EPIDEMIC, HIV/AIDS, UPDATE, STATES, YOUNG, CITY
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Public Health and Policy > Dept of Social and Environmental Health Research
Research Centre: Centre for Maternal, Reproductive and Child Health (MARCH)
Web of Science ID: 256173800002
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/7512

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