Malaria in patients with sickle cell anemia: burden, risk factors and outcome at outpatient clinic and during hospitalization.


Makani, JK; Komba, AN; Cox, SE; Oruo, J; Mwamtemi, K; Kitundu, J; Magesa, P; Rwezaula, S; Meda, E; Mgaya, J; Pallangyo, K; Okiro, E; Muturi, D; Newton, CR; Fegan, G; Marsh, K; Williams, TN; (2009) Malaria in patients with sickle cell anemia: burden, risk factors and outcome at outpatient clinic and during hospitalization. Blood, 115 (2). pp. 215-20. ISSN 0006-4971 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-07-233528

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Abstract

Approximately 280,000 children are born with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in Africa annually, yet few survive beyond childhood. Falciparum malaria is considered a significant cause of this mortality. We conducted a 5-year prospective surveillance study for malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria, and severe malarial anemia (SMA) in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between 2004 and 2009. We recorded 10,491 visits to the outpatient clinic among 1808 patients with SCA and 773 visits among 679 patients without SCA. Similarly, we recorded 691 hospital admissions among 497 patients with SCA and 2017 in patients without SCA. Overall, the prevalence of parasitemia was lower in patients with SCA than in patients without SCA both at clinic (0.7% vs 1.6%; OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32-0.86; P = .008) and during hospitalization (3.0% vs 5.6%; OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.25-0.94; P = .01). Furthermore, patients with SCA had higher rates of malaria during hospitalization than at clinic, the ORs being 4.29 (95% CI, 2.63-7.01; P < .001) for parasitemia, 17.66 (95% CI, 5.92-52.71; P < .001) for clinical malaria, and 21.11 (95% CI, 8.46-52.67; P < .001) for SMA. Although malaria was rare among patients with SCA, parasitemia during hospitalization was associated with both severe anemia and death. Effective treatment for malaria during severe illness episodes and further studies to determine the role chemoprophylaxis are required.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Population Health (2012- ) > Dept of Nutrition and Public Health Interventions Research (2003-2012)
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Population Health (2012- )
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Malaria Centre
PubMed ID: 19901265
Web of Science ID: 273622600010
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/4403

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