Understanding reduced rotavirus vaccine efficacy in low socio-economic settings.


Lopman, BA; Pitzer, VE; Sarkar, R; Gladstone, B; Patel, M; Glasser, J; Gambhir, M; Atchison, C; Grenfell, BT; Edmunds, WJ; Kang, G; Parashar, UD; (2012) Understanding reduced rotavirus vaccine efficacy in low socio-economic settings. PLoS One, 7 (8). e41720. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041720

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION Rotavirus vaccine efficacy ranges from >90% in high socio-economic settings (SES) to 50% in low SES. With the imminent introduction of rotavirus vaccine in low SES countries, understanding reasons for reduced efficacy in these settings could identify strategies to improve vaccine performance. METHODS We developed a mathematical model to predict rotavirus vaccine efficacy in high, middle and low SES based on data specific for each setting on incidence, protection conferred by natural infection and immune response to vaccination. We then examined factors affecting efficacy. RESULTS Vaccination was predicted to prevent 93%, 86% and 51% of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in high, middle and low SES, respectively. Also predicted was that vaccines are most effective against severe disease and efficacy declines with age in low but not high SES. Reduced immunogenicity of vaccination and reduced protection conferred by natural infection are the main factors that compromise efficacy in low SES. DISCUSSION The continued risk of severe disease in non-primary natural infections in low SES is a key factor underpinning reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. Predicted efficacy was remarkably consistent with observed clinical trial results from different SES, validating the model. The phenomenon of reduced vaccine efficacy can be predicted by intrinsic immunological and epidemiological factors of low SES populations. Modifying aspects of the vaccine (e.g. improving immunogenicity in low SES) and vaccination program (e.g. additional doses) may bring improvements.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
PubMed ID: 22879893
Web of Science ID: 307810000009
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/333633

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