Tuberculosis transmission risk and infection control in a hospital emergency department in Lima, Peru


Escombe, AR; Huaroto, L; Ticona, E; Burgos, M; Sanchez, I; Carrasco, L; Farf?n, E; Flores, F; Moore, DA; (2010) Tuberculosis transmission risk and infection control in a hospital emergency department in Lima, Peru. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease, 14 (9). pp. 1120-6. ISSN 1027-3719

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Overcrowded emergency departments (EDs) are used by undiagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients. TB infection control measures are seldom prioritised, making EDs potential foci of unrecognised nosocomial transmission. OBJECTIVE: To quantify TB infection risk among health care workers in an ED in a high TB-burden setting, Lima, Peru, and to evaluate TB infection control measures. METHODS: Consenting ED staff were tested for TB infection at baseline and after 1 year using the QuantiFERON(R)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-G). In parallel, sputum for TB culture was requested from patients spending >2 h in the ED, irrespective of presenting complaint. Infection control measures were documented and room ventilation measured. RESULTS: Over 1 year, there were 2246 TB patient-hours of exposure in the ED from 153 different patients. At baseline, 56% of the 70 staff recruited were QFT-G-positive; 27 of 31 baseline-negatives consented to follow-up after 1 year, and eight (30%, all clinical staff) tested positive. Annual incidence of infection was 1730 per 100 000 population. TB infection control measures were sub-optimal, with no patient screening, no isolation rooms, inadequate ventilation and sporadic respirator use. CONCLUSIONS: ED staff were exposed to an unexpectedly large TB burden in the workplace, resulting in a high rate of TB infection. TB infection control should be prioritised in EDs, especially in high-prevalence settings.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: tuberculosis, infection control, occupational tuberculosis, nosocomial, transmission, HEALTH-CARE WORKERS, ACTIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS, MYCOBACTERIUM-TUBERCULOSIS, NOSOCOMIAL TUBERCULOSIS, COMMUNITY, STUDENTS, VENTILATION, DIAGNOSIS, PERSONNEL, EPIDEMIC
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Research Centre: TB Centre
PubMed ID: 20819256
Web of Science ID: 281275900009
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2946

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