Combining organophosphate-treated wall linings and long-lasting insecticidal nets fails to provide additional control over long-lasting insecticidal nets alone against multiple insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in Côte d'Ivoire: an experimental hut trial.


Ngufor, C; Chouaïbou, M; Tchicaya, E; Loukou, B; Kesse, N; N'Guessan, R; Johnson, P; Koudou, B; Rowland, M; (2014) Combining organophosphate-treated wall linings and long-lasting insecticidal nets fails to provide additional control over long-lasting insecticidal nets alone against multiple insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in Côte d'Ivoire: an experimental hut trial. Malar J, 13. p. 396. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-396

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Abstract

BACKGROUND Insecticide-treated wall lining (ITWL) is a new concept in malaria vector control. Some Anopheles gambiae populations in West Africa have developed resistance to all the main classes of insecticides. It needs to be demonstrated whether vector control can be improved or resistance managed when non-pyrethroid ITWL is used alone or together with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against multiple insecticide-resistant vector populations. METHODS Two experimental hut trials were carried out as proofs of concept to evaluate pirimiphos methyl (p-methyl)-treated plastic wall lining (WL) and net wall hangings (NWH) used alone and in combination with LLINs against multiple insecticide-resistant An. gambiae in Tiassalé, Côte d'Ivoire. Comparison was made to commercial deltamethrin WL and genotypes for kdr and ace-1R resistance were monitored. RESULTS The kdr and ace-1R allele frequencies were 0.83 and 0.44, respectively. Anopheles gambiae surviving discriminating concentrations of deltamethrin and p-methyl in WHO resistance tests were 57 and 96%, respectively. Mortality of free-flying An. gambiae in huts with p-methyl WL and NWH (66 and 50%, respectively) was higher than with pyrethroid WL (32%; P < 0.001). Mortality with LLIN was 63%. Mortality with the combination of LLIN plus p-methyl NWH (61%) or LLIN plus p-methyl WL (73%) did not significantly improve upon the LLIN alone or p-methyl WL or NWH alone. Mosquitoes bearing the ace-1R were more likely to survive exposure to p-methyl WL and NWH. Selection of heterozygote and homozygote ace-1R or kdr genotypes was not less likely after exposure to combined LLIN and p-methyl treatments than to single p-methyl treatment. Blood-feeding rates were lower in huts with the pyrethroid LLIN (19%) than with p-methyl WL (72%) or NWH (76%); only LLIN contributed to personal protection. CONCLUSIONS Combining p-methyl WL or NWH with LLINs provided no improvement in An. gambiae control or personal protection over LLIN alone in southern Côte d'Ivoire; neither did the combination manage resistance. Additional resistance mechanisms to kdr and ace-1R probably contributed to the survival of pyrethroid and organophophate-resistant mosquitoes. The study demonstrates the challenge that malaria control programmes will face if resistance to multiple insecticides continues to spread.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
Research Centre: Malaria Centre
PubMed ID: 25301219
Web of Science ID: 344120500001
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2006428

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