Neonatal survival 1 - 4 million neonatal deaths: When? where? why?


Lawn, JE; Cousens, S; Zupan, J; (2005) Neonatal survival 1 - 4 million neonatal deaths: When? where? why? Lancet. p. 891. ISSN 0140-6736 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71048-5

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Abstract

The proportion of child deaths that occurs in the neonatal period (38% in 2000) is increasing, and the Millennium Development Goal for child survival cannot be met without substantial reductions in neonatal mortality. Every year an estimated 4 million babies die in the first 4 weeks of life (the neonatal period). A similar number are stillborn, and 0.5 million mothers die from pregnancy-related causes. Three- quarters of neonatal deaths happen in the first week-the highest risk of death is on the first day of life. Almost all (99%) neonatal deaths arise in low-income and middle-income countries, yet most epidemiological and other research focuses on the 1% of deaths in rich countries. The highest numbers of neonatal deaths are in south-central Asian countries and the highest rates are generally in sub-Saharan Africa. The countries in these regions (with some exceptions) have made little progress in reducing such deaths in the past 10-15 years. Globally, the main direct causes of neonatal death are estimated to be preterm birth (28%), severe infections (26%), and asphyxia (23%). Neonatal tetanus accounts for a smaller proportion of deaths (7%), but is easily preventable. Low birthweight is an important indirect cause of death. Maternal complications in labour carry a high risk of neonatal death, and poverty is strongly associated with an increased risk. Preventing deaths in newborn babies has not been a focus of child survival or safe motherhood programmes. While we neglect these challenges, 450 newborn children die every hour, mainly from preventable causes, which is unconscionable in the 21st century.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Millennium development goals, low-birth-weight, perinatal-, mortality, rural malawi, maternal mortality, risk-factors, pregnancy, care, bangladesh, outcomes, Adolescent, Adult, Africa, epidemiology, Asia, epidemiology, Cause of Death, Developing Countries, statistics & numerical data, Female, Healthy People Programs, Humans, Infant Mortality, Infant, Low Birth Weight, Infant, Newborn, Insurance, Health, Male, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Risk Factors, Socioeconomic Factors
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Centre for Maternal, Reproductive and Child Health (MARCH)
Tropical Epidemiology Group
PubMed ID: 15752534
Web of Science ID: 227444600032
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/13782

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