Serological and molecular epidemiology of measles virus outbreaks reported in Ethiopia during 2000-2004


Nigatu, W; Nokes, DJ; Afework, A; Brown, DWG; Cutts, FT; Jin, L; (2006) Serological and molecular epidemiology of measles virus outbreaks reported in Ethiopia during 2000-2004. Journal of medical virology, 78 (12). pp. 1648-1655. ISSN 0146-6615 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.20750

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Abstract

Twenty-eight outbreaks in six regions and two major cities in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2004 were investigated, with the collection of 207 venous blood and/or oral fluid samples. Measles diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles-specific IgM and/or detection of measles virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 176 suspected cases tested for specific measles IgM, 142 (81%) were IgM positive. Suspected cases in vaccinated children were much less likely to be laboratory confirmed than in unvaccinated children (42% vs. 83%, P < 0.0001). Of 197 samples analyzed by RT-PCR measles virus genome was detected in 84 (43%). A total of 58 wild-type measles viruses were characterized by nucleic acid sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes. Two recognized genotypes (D4 and 133) were identified. Each outbreak comprised only a single genotype and outbreaks of each genotype tended to occur in distinct geographical locations. 133 was first observed in 2002, and has now been the cause of three documented outbreaks near to the border of Sudan. D4 genotype was previously observed in an outbreak in 1999 and occurs in more diverse locations throughout the country. These data yield insights into geographical and age-related sources of continued transmission. Refinement of measles control measures might include targeting older age groups (5-14 years) and strengthening routine immunization particularly where importation of cases is a concern.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: ENGLAND, WALES, Adolescent, Antibodies, Viral, blood, Child, Child, Preschool, Disease Outbreaks, Epidemiology, Molecular, Ethiopia, epidemiology, Humans, Immunoglobulin M, blood, Infant, Measles, diagnosis, epidemiology, virology, Measles virus, classification, genetics, immunology, isolation & purification, Molecular Sequence Data, Polymerase Chain Reaction, methods, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sequence Analysis, DNA
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Vaccine Centre
PubMed ID: 17063528
Web of Science ID: 241822000020
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/10519

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