Association between active GB virus-C (hepatitis G) infection and HIV-1 disease in Uganda

Yirrell, DL; Wright, E; Shafer, LA; Campbell, E; van der Paall, L; Kaleebu, P; Grosskurth, H; Whitworth, JA; (2007) Association between active GB virus-C (hepatitis G) infection and HIV-1 disease in Uganda. International journal of STD & AIDS, 18 (4). pp. 244-249. ISSN 0956-4624 DOI:

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Although not linked to a disease, GB virus-C viraemia has been associated with an improved prognosis in HIV-1-co-infected individuals. Most studies have been conducted on men (men who have sex with men or injection drug users) infected with HIV-1 subtype B, whereas here we report on both male and female subjects from rural Uganda, predominantly infected via the heterosexual route with HIV-1 subtypes A and D. In a longitudinal study of 272 participants, 47 were GBV-C positive and 181 negative, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in both of two plasma samples taken a median of 5.0 years apart. The remainder either acquired (25) or cleared (19) infection. Multilevel regression analyses and Cox survival analyses revealed that participants chronically infected with GBV-C had a slower decline in CD4+ T cells (P < 0.001) and increased survival time (P=0.041) compared with GBV-C RNA-negative, HIV-positive adults. We show that the association between active GBV-C co-infection and improved survival of HIV-1-infected adults is not restricted to HIV subtype B, but is also observed in both males and females infected with HIV subtypes A and D.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: HIV-1, GB virus-C, genotypes, disease progression, Africa, C/HEPATITIS G VIRUS, HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY, CLINICAL PROGRESSION, RURAL UGANDA, COHORT, COINFECTION, SURVIVAL, MORTALITY, WOMEN, Adolescent, Adult, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Child, Disease Progression, Female, Flaviviridae Infections, classification, complications, epidemiology, GB virus C, classification, isolation & purification, HIV Infections, complications, epidemiology, physiopathology, HIV-1, classification, pathogenicity, Hepatitis, Viral, Human, classification, complications, epidemiology, Humans, Male, Prognosis, Rural Population, Survival Analysis, Uganda, epidemiology
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Centre for Global Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
PubMed ID: 17509174
Web of Science ID: 246209500006


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