Health risks in wastewater irrigation: Comparing estimates from quantitative microbial risk analyses and epidemiological studies


Mara, DD; Sleigh, PA; Blumenthal, UJ; Carr, RM; (2007) Health risks in wastewater irrigation: Comparing estimates from quantitative microbial risk analyses and epidemiological studies. Journal of water and health, 5 (1). pp. 39-50. ISSN 1477-8920 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2006.055

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Abstract

The combination of standard quantitative microbial risk analysis (QMRA) techniques and 10,000-trial Monte Carlo risk simulations was used to estimate the human health risks associated with the use of wastewater for unrestricted and restricted crop irrigation. A risk of rotavirus infection of 10(-2) per person per year (pppy) was used as the reference level of acceptable risk. Using the model scenario of involuntary soil ingestion for restricted irrigation, the risk of rotavirus infection is approximately 10(-2) pppy when the wastewater contains < or =10(6) Escherichia coli per 100ml and when local agricultural practices are highly mechanised. For labour-intensive agriculture the risk of rotavirus infection is approximately 10(-2) pppy when the wastewater contains < or = 10(5) E. coli per 100ml; however, the wastewater quality should be < or = 10(4) E. coli per 100ml when children under 15 are exposed. With the model scenario of lettuce consumption for unrestricted irrigation, the use of wastewaters containing < or =10(4) E. coli per 100ml results in a rotavirus infection risk of approximately 10(-2) pppy; however, again based on epidemiological evidence from Mexico, the current WHO guideline level of < or =1,000 E. coli per 100ml should be retained for root crops eaten raw.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: epidemiology, health, irrigation, risk analysis, rotavirus, wastewater, STABILIZATION PONDS, REUSE, CRYPTOSPORIDIUM, INACTIVATION, RECLAMATION, STANDARDS, REMOVAL, OOCYSTS, MODEL, LAND, Adolescent, Agriculture, Campylobacter Infections, epidemiology, transmission, Cryptosporidiosis, epidemiology, transmission, Environmental Monitoring, Escherichia coli, isolation & purification, Humans, Lettuce, microbiology, parasitology, Monte Carlo Method, Risk, Rotavirus Infections, epidemiology, transmission, Waste Disposal, Fluid, Water Microbiology, World Health Organization
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
PubMed ID: 17402278
Web of Science ID: 245666100002
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/9508

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