Deltamethrin-impregnated bednets reduce human landing rates of sandfly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis in Amazon households


Courtenay, O; Gillingwater, K; Gomes, PAF; Garcez, LM; Davies, CR; (2007) Deltamethrin-impregnated bednets reduce human landing rates of sandfly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis in Amazon households. Medical and veterinary entomology, 21 (2). pp. 168-176. ISSN 0269-283X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2007.00678.x

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Abstract

The entomological efficacy of using 25% deltamethrin EC insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) was evaluated against the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the principal vector of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America. A crossover field study in Amazon Brazil (Marajo Island, Para State) demonstrated that, compared with untreated nets, the insecticide increased the barrier effect of nets by 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34-44%), reduced human landing rates by 80% (95% CI 62-90%) and increased the 24-h mortality rate from 0% to 98% (95% CI 93-99%) inside ITNs. The presence of an ITN also reduced the human landing rate on unprotected persons outside the net in the same room by 56% (95% CI 52-59%), and increased 24-h mortality to 68% (95% CI 62-73%) compared to 0.4% (0.1-2.0%) in untreated houses. The reduction in human landing rates in ITN rooms was associated with a doubling in the proportion of sandflies alighting on walls compared with that in untreated rooms, which was attributed to insecticide-induced excito-repellency. There was no evidence that sandflies were diverted onto unprotected hosts. Human landing catches inside houses peaked between 19.00 hours and 23.00 hours and declined steadily to zero at 02.00 hours and thereafter. House-to-house questionnaires established that only 34% of households owned at least one net (median two, range 1-8), only 20% of the population slept under a net (33% of 0-5-year-old children), and the majority (73%) of the population slept in hammocks. Combined data pertaining to sleeping times for children and sandfly activity period indicate that > 50% of sandfly bites inside houses, and substantially more outside houses, were taken before a third of children were potentially protected by a net. This study demonstrates the clear entomological efficacy of ITNs against Lu. longipalpis in this endemic region. The effectiveness of ITNs at preventing ZVL infection and disease has still to be evaluated.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: lutzomyia longipalpis, bednets, insecticide, ITNs, leishmaniasis, sandfly, vector control, Brazil, Insecticide-treated bednets, anopheles-gambiae complex, cluster, randomized trial, visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, phlebotomine sandflies, mosquito nets, canine leishmaniasis, malaria, vectors, transmission
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
Research Centre: Leishmaniasis Group
PubMed ID: 17550436
Web of Science ID: 247175100006
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/9207

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