Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients being registered for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi

Hargreaves, NJ; Kadzakumanja, O; Phiri, S; Lee, CH; Tang, X; Salaniponi, FM; Harries, AD; Squire, SB; (2001) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients being registered for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 95 (4). pp. 402-8. ISSN 0035-9203 DOI:

Full text not available from this repository.


The National TB Control Programme of Malawi registers and treats large numbers of patients with chronic cough for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Smear-negative PTB is diagnosed according to clinical and radiographic criteria, as mycobacterial cultures are not routinely available. In an area of high HIV seroprevalence there is a concern that other opportunistic infections apart from TB, such as Pneumocystis carinii, may be missed owing to lack of diagnostic facilities. The aims of this study were to investigate (i) the extent of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients about to be registered for smear-negative PTB; (ii) whether there were any clinical or radiological features that could help identify PCP in the absence of more detailed investigations; and (iii) the treatment outcome of PCP patients. A cohort of 352 patients who were about to be started on treatment for smear-negative PTB were investigated further in 1997-99 by clinical assessment, HIV testing and bronchoscopy. HIV sero-prevalence was 89% (278/313). A total of 186 patients underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage, and PCP was diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescence or polymerase chain reaction in 17 (9%) of this subgroup. Dyspnoea was significantly more common in PCP cases compared to non-PCP cases (RR 1.35; 95% CI 1.24-1.48; P = 0.008), but discrimination between the groups was difficult using clinical criteria alone. The outcome of PCP cases was poor despite management with high-dose co-trimoxazole and secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, with a median survival of 4 months (25-75% range: 2-12 months).

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Adult, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Cohort Studies, Cough, Female, Humans, Malawi, Male, Opportunistic Infections, Pneumocystis Infections, Pneumonia, Pneumocystis, Registries, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary, Adult, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, microbiology, Cohort Studies, Cough, microbiology, Female, Humans, Malawi, epidemiology, Male, Opportunistic Infections, complications, diagnosis, microbiology, Pneumocystis Infections, complications, diagnosis, microbiology, Pneumonia, Pneumocystis, complications, microbiology, Registries, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary, complications, microbiology
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
PubMed ID: 11579884
Web of Science ID: 171336900015


Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads since deposit
Accesses by country - last 12 months
Accesses by referrer - last 12 months
Impact and interest
Additional statistics for this record are available via IRStats2

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item