Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum in whole blood by riboflavin plus irradiation.

El Chaar, M; Atwal, S; Freimanis, GL; Dinko, B; Sutherland, CJ; Allain, JP; (2013) Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum in whole blood by riboflavin plus irradiation. Transfusion, 53 (12). pp. 3174-83. ISSN 0041-1132 DOI: 10.1111/trf.12235

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Malaria parasites are frequently transmitted by unscreened blood transfusions in Africa. Pathogen reduction methods in whole blood would thus greatly improve blood safety. We aimed to determine the efficacy of riboflavin plus irradiation for treatment of whole blood infected with Plasmodium falciparum.<br/> STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood was inoculated with 10(4) or 10(5) parasites/mL and riboflavin treated with or without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (40-160 J/mL red blood cells [mLRBCs ]). Parasite genome integrity was assessed by quantitative amplification inhibition assays, and P. falciparum viability was monitored in vitro.<br/> RESULTS: Riboflavin alone did not affect parasite genome integrity or parasite viability. Application of UV after riboflavin treatment disrupted parasite genome integrity, reducing polymerase-dependent amplification by up to 2 logs (99%). At 80 J/mLRBCs , riboflavin plus irradiation prevented recovery of viable parasites in vitro for 2 weeks, whereas untreated controls typically recovered to approximately 2% parasitemia after 4 days of in vitro culture. Exposure of blood to 160 J/mLRBCs was not associated with significant hemolysis.<br/> CONCLUSIONS: Riboflavin plus irradiation treatment of whole blood damages parasite genomes and drastically reduces P. falciparum viability in vitro. In the absence of suitable malaria screening assays, parasite inactivation should be investigated for prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria in highly endemic areas.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Immunology and Infection
Research Centre: Malaria Centre
PubMed ID: 23656538
Web of Science ID: 327926400018
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/856655

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