Lens opacities in adults in pakistan: prevalence and risk factors.

Shah, SP; Dineen, B; Jadoon, Z; Bourne, R; Khan, MA; Johnson, GJ; De Stavola, B; Gilbert, C; Khan, MD; (2007) Lens opacities in adults in pakistan: prevalence and risk factors. Ophthalmic epidemiology, 14 (6). pp. 381-9. ISSN 0928-6586 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09286580701375179

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Purpose: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for lens opacity (LO) amongst a nationally representative sample of the adult population of Pakistan. Methods: This national study of blindness and visual impairment (adults >/=30 years) used multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling. Grading of LO was conducted using the Mehra/Minassian classification system. LO, partly or wholly obscuring the red reflex, or previous cataract surgery were indicators of opacity. Results: 16,402 (94.7%) adults were included in this analysis (study conducted 2002-2003). A total of 4,096 (standardized prevalence 20.9%, 95%CI: 20.3, 21.5%) adults were found to have LO. The highest prevalence of LO was found in Punjab province (22.2%), the lowest in Balochistan Province (18.0%). Significant positive associations were increasing age (multivariable odds ratio (OR) 3.2: 95%CI: 3.1, 3.4), hypertension (OR 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.3), history of diabetes (OR 2.6: 95%CI 2.0, 3.2) and smoking (OR 1.3: 95%CI: 1.1, 1.5). Higher body mass index (BMI) (OR 0.8: 95%CI 0.7, 0.9, heavy vs. normal BMI) and attendance to school (OR 0.6: 95%CI: 0.5, 0.8) were associated with lower risk of LO. Individuals in districts classified as hot were at significantly increased risk (OR 1.3: 95%CI: 1.1, 1.5), and those in wet districts (> 600 mm annual rainfall) had lower odds than individuals living in dry districts (OR 0.7: 95%CI: 0.6, 0.8). Conclusions: Almost a fifth of the adult population had LO. Significant positive associations were age, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, and increased deprivation level. Protective factors included high BMI and educational achievement. The climatic associations offer novel hypothesis for further research into cataractogenesis.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Medical Statistics
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Research Centre: Centre for Global Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
The International Centre for Evidence in Disability
International Centre for Eye Health
PubMed ID: 18161612
Web of Science ID: 251932000008
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/8330


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