Assessment and evaluation of contact as a risk factor for tuberculosis in rural Africa.


Crampin, AC; Floyd, S; Ngwira, BM; Mwinuka, V; Mwaungulu, JN; Branson, K; Fine, PE; Glynn, JR; (2008) Assessment and evaluation of contact as a risk factor for tuberculosis in rural Africa. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease , 12 (6). pp. 612-8. ISSN 1027-3719

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Abstract

SETTING: A rural district in Malawi.<br/> OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inaccurate recall on estimates of the proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases attributable to contact with identifiable prior cases.<br/> DESIGN: Case-control study of laboratory-confirmed TB cases and community controls, comparing family, household and area contacts identified from a database of TB cases with those named at interview. Estimation of prior contact as a risk factor for TB and identified factors associated with being a named contact.<br/> RESULTS: Ninety-five per cent of named contacts were known TB cases. The proportion of total identified contacts who were named at interview was 75%, and was similar for cases and controls. Cases were twice as likely as controls to identify prior contacts. Adding database information did not affect odds ratios, but increased the proportion of TB cases attributable to prior contact. Smear-positive, male and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative TB patients were more likely to be named by subsequent cases. Identifiable recent contact with known smear-positive cases accounted for 12.5% of the TB burden.<br/> CONCLUSIONS: Reporting of putative source contacts showed little evidence of recall bias and gave estimates of the relative risk of TB associated with identifiable contact. The lower likelihood of HIV-positive cases being named as contacts may reflect reduced infectiousness.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: MEIRU
TB Centre
Population Studies Group
PubMed ID: 18492326
Web of Science ID: 256326300007
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/7660

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