EPI vaccines-induced antibody prevalence in 8-9 year-olds in The Gambia


Viviani, S; Mendy, M; Jack, AD; Hall, AJ; Montesano, R; Whittle, HC; (2004) EPI vaccines-induced antibody prevalence in 8-9 year-olds in The Gambia. Tropical medicine & international health , 9 (10). pp. 1044-1049. ISSN 1360-2276 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01313.x

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES We evaluated antibody prevalence to measles, polio 1 and 3, and tetanus toxoid antibodies in 8-9 year-old children in The Gambia within the framework of the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS), a large vaccine trial aimed at evaluating vaccine efficacy against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic carriage and primary liver cancer in a high risk population. The results of the present survey were compared with a previous survey performed with the same objectives and same methodology but in different children at 3-4 years of age. METHODS Four clusters of 200 children each were sampled as representative of the whole country. Children would have received BCG, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT), poliovirus vaccine (OPV), measles and yellow fever immunization. The measles haemoagglutination inhibition test (HAI) was used to detect measles antibody. Antibodies to polioviruses 1 and 3 were tested using the standard polio neutralization assay described in the EPI manual (WHO 1990). An enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure tetanus toxoid antibodies. RESULTS A high proportion of children were fully vaccinated in both age groups. Measles antibody concentrations were less than or equal to1 : 8 in 8.2% of 8-9 year-old vaccinated children. In the previous survey of 3-4 year-old children this was 11.3%. In the present survey, GMC was lower than in the 3-4 year-old children; 88% of 3-4 year-olds and 89% of 8-9 year-olds had detectable antibody levels against poliovirus type 1. Fewer children at 8-9 years of age had antibodies against poliovirus type 3 than 3-4 year-olds (78%vs. 89%P < 0.001). A significant overall lower proportion of 8-9 year-old children had detectable tetanus toxoid antibodies compared to 3-4 year-old children (87%vs. 95%P < 0.001), as well as those who received four doses of DPT (90%vs. 97%P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS High vaccine coverage is achieved in The Gambia with EPI. With time the number of vaccinated children who are not protected against measles, poliovirus 3 and tetanus increases. Besides the maintenance of high vaccine coverage in infants and young children, booster doses of some of the EPI vaccines in adolescents should be considered.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: vaccine, DPT, polio, measles, HEPATITIS-B VACCINE, ORAL POLIO VACCINE, EXPANDED PROGRAM, MEASLES, CHILDREN, TETANUS, IMMUNIZATION, IMMUNITY, INFANTS, AFRICA, Antibodies, Bacterial, blood, Antibodies, Viral, blood, Child, Child, Preschool, Cross-Sectional Studies, Developing Countries, Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine, immunology, Gambia, Humans, Immunization Programs, Immunization Schedule, Measles Vaccine, immunology, Measles virus, immunology, Poliovirus, immunology, Vaccination, utilization
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Vaccine Centre
PubMed ID: 15482396
Web of Science ID: 224464400002
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/6234

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