Reduction of meningitis and impact on under-5 pneumonia after introducing the Hib vaccine in the Kingdom of Tonga

Russell, FM; Fakakovi, T; Paasi, S; Ika, A; Mulholland, EK; (2009) Reduction of meningitis and impact on under-5 pneumonia after introducing the Hib vaccine in the Kingdom of Tonga. Annals of tropical paediatrics, 29 (2). pp. 111-117. ISSN 0272-4936 DOI:

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Aims: To document the impact of Hib vaccine on Haemophilus influenzae ( Hi) invasive disease, meningitis and inpatient pneumonia in children under 5 in the Kingdom of Tonga. Methods: Cases of meningitis and pneumonia were sourced from the paediatric discharge book from 1 January 2000 to 2 November 2007 and from computerised discharge records from Vaoila Hospital on the island of Tongatapu where approximately 70% of the total population resides. Laboratory-confirmed cases were sourced from the microbiology laboratory register over the same period. Results: Prior to the introduction of Hib vaccine in 2005, there were, on average, 5.6 cases of invasive Hi disease per year. In the 22 months after Hib vaccine introduction, there was only one case of invasive Hi disease. This corresponds to a fall in the annual incidence of invasive Hib disease from 54.3 to 5.1/100,000 children under 5 years of age. The annual incidence of inpatient pneumonia has fallen by 28.3% from 1007.6 to 722.8/100,000 children under 5 in the 22 months after introducing the vaccine. Conclusion: Hib vaccine has reduced invasive Hi disease and Hi meningitis in Tonga. The reduction in inpatient pneumonia is more likely a reflection of annual fluctuations in viral pneumonia than of a reduction in Hib pneumonia, but ongoing surveillance is recommended.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Centre for Maternal, Reproductive and Child Health (MARCH)
Vaccine Centre
PubMed ID: 19460264
Web of Science ID: 266407600004


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