High risk of severe anaemia after chlorproguanil-dapsone+artesunate antimalarial treatment in patients with G6PD (A-) deficiency.


Fanello, CI; Karema, C; Avellino, P; Bancone, G; Uwimana, A; Lee, SJ; d'Alessandro, U; Modiano, D; (2008) High risk of severe anaemia after chlorproguanil-dapsone+artesunate antimalarial treatment in patients with G6PD (A-) deficiency. PLoS One, 3 (12). e4031. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004031

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common inherited human enzyme defect. This deficiency provides some protection from clinical malaria, but it can also cause haemolysis after administration of drugs with oxidant properties. METHODS: The safety of chlorproguanil-dapsone+artesunate (CD+A) and amodiaquine+sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ+SP) for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was evaluated according to G6PD deficiency in a secondary analysis of an open-label, randomized clinical trial. 702 children, treated with CD+A or AQ+SP and followed for 28 days after treatment were genotyped for G6PD A- deficiency. FINDINGS: In the first 4 days following CD+A treatment, mean haematocrit declined on average 1.94% (95% CI 1.54 to 2.33) and 1.05% per day (95% CI 0.95 to 1.15) respectively in patients with G6PD deficiency and normal patients; a mean reduction of 1.3% per day was observed among patients who received AQ+SP regardless of G6PD status (95% CI 1.25 to 1.45). Patients with G6PD deficiency recipients of CD+A had significantly lower haematocrit than the other groups until day 7 (p = 0.04). In total, 10 patients had severe post-treatment haemolysis requiring blood transfusion. Patients with G6PD deficiency showed a higher risk of severe anaemia following treatment with CD+A (RR = 10.2; 95% CI 1.8 to 59.3) or AQ+SP (RR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 32.7). CONCLUSIONS: CD+A showed a poor safety profile in individuals with G6PD deficiency most likely as a result of dapsone induced haemolysis. Screening for G6PD deficiency before drug administration of potentially pro-oxidants drugs, like dapsone-containing combinations, although seldom available, is necessary.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
Research Centre: Malaria Centre
PubMed ID: 19112496
Web of Science ID: 265466000004
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/5087

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