Effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy and the cytochrome P450 2B6 516G>T polymorphism on efavirenz concentrations in adults in South Africa.


Cohen, K; Grant, A; Dandara, C; McIlleron, H; Pemba, L; Fielding, K; Charalombous, S; Churchyard, G; Smith, P; Maartens, G; (2009) Effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy and the cytochrome P450 2B6 516G>T polymorphism on efavirenz concentrations in adults in South Africa. Antiviral therapy, 14 (5). pp. 687-95. ISSN 1359-6535

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Rifampicin induces expression of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2B6 (CYP2B6), which metabolizes efavirenz. The CYP2B6 516G>T polymorphism impairs efavirenz metabolism and occurs more commonly in Africans than in Caucasians. We explored the effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy and the 516G>T polymorphism on efavirenz concentrations in HIV-infected patients in South Africa.<br/> METHODS: Between-patient and within-patient comparisons were made of mid-dosing interval efavirenz plasma concentrations in adults on antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz 600 mg daily, with and without antitubercular therapy.<br/> RESULTS: There were 142 participants (40 were on antitubercular therapy and 102 were controls), the mean weight was 66 kg. Median efavirenz concentration was 2.4 mg/l (interquartile range [IQR] 1.3-3.1) and 1.8 mg/l (IQR 1.4-4.4) in participants on antitubercular therapy and controls, respectively (P=0.734). Paired efavirenz concentrations during and after antitubercular therapy in 17 participants were also similar (P=0.113). Genotyping results were 60 (49%) G/G homozygotes, 46 (38%) G/T heterozygotes and 16 (13%) T/T homozygotes. In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for sex, weight and concomitant antitubercular therapy, the 516G>T polymorphism was strongly associated with high (>4 mg/l) efavirenz concentrations: odds ratio (OR) 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-14.9) for G/T versus G/G and 31.1 (95% CI 6.6-146.6) for T/T versus G/G. High efavirenz concentrations were associated with severe sleep disturbance (P=0.048). Low (<1 mg/l) efavirenz concentrations were associated with virological failure (OR 12.5, 95% CI 2.7-57.3).<br/> CONCLUSIONS: Efavirenz can be used together with rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy without dose adjustment in this population. The 516G>T polymorphism occurred commonly and was associated with high efavirenz concentrations.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: TB Centre
Tropical Epidemiology Group
PubMed ID: 19704172
Web of Science ID: 269719200010
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/4843

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