Effectiveness of a long-lasting piperonyl butoxide-treated insecticidal net and indoor residual spray interventions, separately and together, against malaria transmitted by pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes: a cluster, randomised controlled, two-by-two factorial design trial.


Protopopoff, N; Mosha, JF; Lukole, E; Charlwood, JD; Wright, A; Mwalimu, CD; Manjurano, A; Mosha, FW; Kisinza, W; Kleinschmidt, I; Rowland, M; (2018) Effectiveness of a long-lasting piperonyl butoxide-treated insecticidal net and indoor residual spray interventions, separately and together, against malaria transmitted by pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes: a cluster, randomised controlled, two-by-two factorial design trial. Lancet. ISSN 0140-6736 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30427-6

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Abstract

Progress in malaria control is under threat by wide-scale insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. Two recent vector control products have been developed: a long-lasting insecticidal net that incorporates a synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and a long-lasting indoor residual spraying formulation of the insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. We evaluated the effectiveness of PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets versus standard long-lasting insecticidal nets as single interventions and in combination with the indoor residual spraying of pirimiphos-methyl. We did a four-group cluster randomised controlled trial using a two-by-two factorial design of 48 clusters derived from 40 villages in Muleba (Kagera, Tanzania). We randomly assigned these clusters using restricted randomisation to four groups: standard long-lasting insecticidal nets, PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets, standard long-lasting insecticidal nets plus indoor residual spraying, or PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets plus indoor residual spraying. Both standard and PBO nets were distributed in 2015. Indoor residual spraying was applied only once in 2015. We masked the inhabitants of each cluster to the type of nets received, as well as field staff who took blood samples. Neither the investigators nor the participants were masked to indoor residual spraying. The primary outcome was the prevalence of malaria infection in children aged 6 months to 14 years assessed by cross-sectional surveys at 4, 9, 16, and 21 months after intervention. The endpoint for assessment of indoor residual spraying was 9 months and PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets was 21 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02288637. 7184 (68·0%) of 10 560 households were selected for post-intervention survey, and 15 469 (89·0%) of 17 377 eligible children from the four surveys were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Of the 878 households visited in the two indoor residual spraying groups, 827 (94%) had been sprayed. Reported use of long-lasting insecticidal nets, across all groups, was 15 341 (77·3%) of 19 852 residents after 1 year, decreasing to 12 503 (59·2%) of 21 105 in the second year. Malaria infection prevalence after 9 months was lower in the two groups that received PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets than in the two groups that received standard long-lasting insecticidal nets (531 [29%] of 1852 children vs 767 [42%] of 1809; odds ratio [OR] 0·37, 95% CI 0·21-0·65; p=0·0011). At the same timepoint, malaria prevalence in the two groups that received indoor residual spraying was lower than in groups that did not receive indoor residual spraying (508 [28%] of 1846 children vs 790 [44%] of 1815; OR 0·33, 95% CI 0·19-0·55; p<0·0001) and there was evidence of an interaction between PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying (OR 2·43, 95% CI 1·19-4·97; p=0·0158), indicating redundancy when combined. The PBO long-lasting insecticidal net effect was sustained after 21 months with a lower malaria prevalence than the standard long-lasting insecticidal net (865 [45%] of 1930 children vs 1255 [62%] of 2034; OR 0·40, 0·20-0·81; p=0·0122). The PBO long-lasting insecticidal net and non-pyrethroid indoor residual spraying interventions showed improved control of malaria transmission compared with standard long-lasting insecticidal nets where pyrethroid resistance is prevalent and either intervention could be deployed to good effect. As a result, WHO has since recommended to increase coverage of PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets. Combining indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl and PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets provided no additional benefit compared with PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets alone or standard long-lasting insecticidal nets plus indoor residual spraying. UK Department for International Development, Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Malaria Centre
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PubMed ID: 29655496
Web of Science ID: 430542700027
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/4647375

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