Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical outcomes in severe microbial keratitis in South India.


Chidambaram, JD; Venkatesh Prajna, N; Srikanthi, P; Lanjewar, S; Shah, M; Elakkiya, S; Lalitha, P; Burton, MJ; (2018) Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical outcomes in severe microbial keratitis in South India. Ophthalmic epidemiology. pp. 1-9. ISSN 0928-6586 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1454964

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Abstract

Here, we report risk factors associated with outcome in severe bacterial keratitis (BK), fungal keratitis (FK), and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in India. Prospective observational cohort study conducted in Aravind Eye Hospital, India. Adults presenting with severe microbial keratitis (MK) were enrolled (size ≥3 mm) and followed to 21 days post-enrolment. Ulcer clinical features were recorded at presentation. Outcomes by final visit were classified as good (completely healed or reduced infiltrate size) or poor (enlarged infiltrate size, perforated, or surgery performed). Of 252 participants with severe MK, 191 had FK, 18 had AK, 19 had BK, 4 had mixed BK/FK, and 20 were microbiologically negative. Median age was 50 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 37-60 years), 64% were male, 63% were agriculturalists, and 45% had no formal education. Corneal trauma occurred in 72%, and median symptom duration before presentation was 7 days (IQR: 5-15 days). Clinical features associated with FK were feathery margins (p < 0.001), raised profile (p = 0.039), or dry surface (p = 0.007). Hypopyon was more likely in BK (p = 0.001) and ring infiltrate in AK (p < 0.001). Ulcers with poor outcome (n = 106/214) were more likely to be larger (odds ratio [OR]: 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-2.05, p < 0.001), involve the posterior cornea at presentation (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.16-4.59, p = 0.017), involve Aspergillus sp. (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.26-8.25, p = 0.014), or occur in females (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.03-4.04, p = 0.04). Even after treatment, 34% (n = 76/221) had severe visual impairment by the final visit. Severe MK occurred predominantly in agriculturalists post-corneal trauma and often had poor outcomes. Provision of community-based eyecare may allow earlier treatment and improve outcomes.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Research Centre: International Centre for Eye Health
Antimicrobial Resistance Centre (AMR)
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PubMed ID: 29580152
Web of Science ID: 433991400004
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/4647162

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