A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

Moore, SJ; Darling, ST; Sihuincha, M; Padilla, N; Devine, GJ; (2007) A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru. Malar J, 6. p. 101. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-101

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BACKGROUND: The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). METHODS: To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. RESULTS: In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p < 0.0001). In Peru, collections were performed for four hours, commencing two hours after repellent application. The PMD/LG repellent provided 95% protection for six hours after application with a biting pressure of >46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Animals, Anopheles/*drug effects/physiology, DEET/*administration & dosage, Eucalyptus/chemistry, Guatemala, Humans, Insect Bites and Stings, *Insect Repellents/administration & dosage/chemistry/economics, Insect Vectors/*drug effects/physiology, Malaria/*prevention & control, Menthol/administration & dosage/*analogs & derivatives/economics, Mosquito Control, Peru, Plant Oils/*administration & dosage/economics, Terpenes/*administration & dosage/economics, Animals, Anopheles, drug effects, physiology, DEET, administration & dosage, Eucalyptus, chemistry, Guatemala, Humans, Insect Bites and Stings, Insect Repellents, administration & dosage, chemistry, economics, Insect Vectors, drug effects, physiology, Malaria, prevention & control, Menthol, administration & dosage, analogs & derivatives, economics, Mosquito Control, Peru, Plant Oils, administration & dosage, economics, Terpenes, administration & dosage, economics
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
Research Centre: Malaria Centre
PubMed ID: 17678537
Web of Science ID: 249300500001
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/4637


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