[Accepted Manuscript] Echocardiographic reference ranges in older children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

Majonga, E.D.; Rehman, A.M.; McHugh, G.; Mujuru, H.A.; Nathoo, K.; Patel, M.S.; Munyati, S.; Odland, J.O.; Kranzer, K.; Kaski, J.P.; Ferrand, R.A.; (2017) [Accepted Manuscript] Echocardiographic reference ranges in older children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. International journal of cardiology. ISSN 0167-5273 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.06.109

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Echocardiographic reference ranges are important to identify abnormalities of cardiac dimensions. Reference ranges for children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been established. The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic z-score references for Black children in sub-Saharan Africa. 282 healthy subjects aged 6-16years (143 [51%] males) with no known history of cardiac disease were enrolled in the study in Harare, Zimbabwe between 2014 and 2016. Standard M-mode echocardiography was performed and nine cardiac chamber dimensions were obtained. Two non-linear statistical models (gamma weighted model and cubic polynomial model) were tested on the data and the best fitting model was used to calculate z-scores of these cardiac chamber measures. The reference ranges are presented on scatter plots against BSA. Normative data for the following cardiac measures were obtained and z-scores calculated: right ventricular diameter at end diastole (RVEDD); left ventricular diameter at end diastole (LVEDD) and systole (LVESD); interventricular septal wall thickness at end diastole (IVSd) and systole (IVSs); left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole (LVPWd) and systole (LVPWs); left atrium diameter at end systole (LA) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Girls had higher values for BMI and heart rate than boys (p=0.048 and p=0.001, respectively). Mean interventricular septal and left ventricular posterior walls thickness was higher than published normal values in predominantly Caucasian populations. These are the first echocardiographic reference ranges for children from sub Saharan Africa and will allow accurate assessment of cardiac dimensions in clinical practice.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/4363490

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