Determinants of bednet ownership and use in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas of the Indian subcontinent

Vanlerberghe, V; Singh, SP; Paudel, IS; Ostyn, B; Picado, A; Sanchez, A; Rijal, S; Sundar, S; Davies, C; Boelaert, M; (2010) Determinants of bednet ownership and use in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas of the Indian subcontinent. Tropical medicine & international health, 15 (1). pp. 60-67. ISSN 1360-2276 DOI:

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OBJECTIVE To document ownership and use of bednets with its determinants in the visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic region where mainly non-insecticide impregnated nets are available through commercial channels, and bednets are being considered as a leishmaniasis vector control measure. METHODS In August-September 2006, semi-structured household (HH) questionnaires and observation guides were used in a random sample of 1330 HHs in VL-endemic districts of India and Nepal to collect data on VL knowledge, HH socio-economic status, bednet ownership and use patterns. An asset index was constructed to allow wealth ranking of the HH. A binary logistic response General Estimating Equations model was fitted to evaluate the determinants of bednet ownership and use. RESULTS The proportion of HHs with at least one bednet purchased on the commercial market was 81.5% in India and 70.2% in Nepal. The bednets were used in all seasons by 50.6% and 54.1% of the Indian and Nepalese HH owning a bed net. There was striking inequity in bednet ownership: only 38.3% of the poorest quintile in Nepal owned at least one net, compared to 89.7% of the wealthiest quintile. In India, the same trend was observed though somewhat less pronounced (73.6% vs. 93.7%). Multivariate analysis showed that poverty was an important independent predictor for not having a bednet in the HH [OR 5.39 (2.90-10.03)]. CONCLUSION Given the inequity in commercial bednet ownership, free distribution of insecticide-treated bednets to the general population seems imperative to achieve a mass effect on vector density.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: visceral leishmaniasis, India, Nepal, bednet use, bednet ownership, poverty, insecticide-treated nets, randomized controlled-trial, kala-azar, impregnated bednets, mass-distribution, risk-factors, rural area, nepal, vector, afghanistan
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
Research Centre: Leishmaniasis Group
PubMed ID: 19917036
Web of Science ID: 272662600009


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