Carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in HIV-infected children in Zimbabwe.

Wilmore, SMS; Kranzer, K; Williams, A; Makamure, B; Nhidza, AF; Mayini, J; Bandason, T; Metcalfe, J; Nicol, MP; Balakrishnan, I; Ellington, MJ; Woodford, N; Hopkins, S; McHugh, TD; Ferrand, RA; (2017) Carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in HIV-infected children in Zimbabwe. Journal of medical microbiology, 66 (5). pp. 609-615. ISSN 0022-2615 DOI:

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Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015. Information was collected on antibiotic use and hospitalization. Stool was tested for ESBL-E through combination disc diffusion. API20E identification and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on the positive samples followed by whole genome sequencing. Stool was collected from 175/202 (86.6 %) children. Median age was 11 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 9-12] years. Median time on ART was 4.6 years (IQR 2.4-6.4). ESBL-Es were found in 24/175 samples (13.7 %); 50 % of all ESBL-Es were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, 100 % to co-trimoxazole, 45.8 % to chloramphenicol, 91.6 % to ceftriaxone, 20.8 % to gentamicin and 62.5 % to ciprofloxacin. ESBL-Es variously encoded CTX-M, OXA, TEM and SHV enzymes. The odds of ESBL-E carriage were 8.5 times (95 % CI 2.2-32.3) higher in those on ART for less than one year (versus longer) and 8.5 times (95 % CI 1.1-32.3) higher in those recently hospitalized for a chest infection. We found a 13.7 % prevalence of ESBL-E carriage in a population where ESBL-E carriage has not been described previously. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Africa merits further study, particularly given the high HIV prevalence and limited diagnostic and therapeutic options available.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
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PubMed ID: 28513417
Web of Science ID: 401984900008


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