[Accepted Manuscript] Recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Comoé valley in Southwest Burkina Faso

Koala, L.; Nikiema, A.; Post, R.J.; Brice Paré, A.; Montant Kafando, C.; Drabo, F.; Traoré, S.; (2016) [Accepted Manuscript] Recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Comoé valley in Southwest Burkina Faso. Acta tropica. ISSN 0001-706X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.11.003 (In Press)

WarningThere is a more recent version of this item available.
Text - Accepted Version

Download (987kB) | Preview


: Onchocerciasis control by vector control was instigated in southwest Burkina Faso in January 1969 by ORSTOM/OCCGE, and continued until operations were taken over by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in February 1975, which itself ceased operations in the area in 1989 when onchocerciasis was judged to have been reduced to insignificant levels. Initially (1969-1975) vector immigration maintained unacceptably high levels of transmission, but OCP was much larger than the preceding campaign and in 1975 the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) dropped below 100 at all sites in the Comoé river valley except Folonzo, which continued to be subject to reinvasion, along with the whole of the Léraba river valley. However, after the southern extension of the OCP in 1979, ATPs dropped below 100 everywhere in the Comoé basin (including the Léraba valley), and further dropped to insignificant levels after the western extension of the OCP in 1985. Thus transmission dropped more quickly in the Comoé river valley than the Léraba river valley (which had been subject to vector reinvasion), and this was also reflected in prevalence of microfilaraemia in the human population. After 1986 prevalence was less than 5% in all villages in the Comoé river valley (except for two, which subsequently dropped to 0% and 3.7% by 1999). However, in 2001 (12 years after the cessation of vector control) the prevalence in one village in the Comoé river valley had increased to 39.6%, and two more had increased above 5% by 2007. New epidemiological surveys in 2011 and 2012 showed that in 13 out of 30 villages in the Comoé river valley prevalence of microfilaraemia was above 5%, although this was not observed in the Léraba river valley where prevalence remained low. This is the first documented case of recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the old OCP area, and the reasons are not clear. It is possible that there has been immigration of parasites with humans or vectors from areas where there has been a shorter period of control, or that control has been less effective. It is possible that in spite of very low levels of transmission the local parasite population was never reduced to a level below the transmission breakpoint, or that there has been a local recrudescence due to stochastic population effects. In any case it is clear that the distribution of ivermectin against lymphatic filariasis in the area since 2004 has failed to prevent the recrudescence of onchocerciasis, and the Burkina Faso Programme National de Lutte contre l'Onchocercose (PNLO - Ministere de la Santé) has instigated a programme of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin specifically aimed at onchocerciasis in accordance with the strategy developed by APOC and recommended to governments by OCP when it was dissolved in 2002.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/3331592

Available Versions of this Item


Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads since deposit
Accesses by country - last 12 months
Accesses by referrer - last 12 months
Impact and interest
Additional statistics for this record are available via IRStats2

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item