Glomerular dysfunction and associated risk factors over 4-5 years following antiretroviral therapy initiation in Africa.

Stöhr, W; Reid, A; Walker, AS; Ssali, F; Munderi, P; Mambule, I; Kityo, C; Grosskurth, H; Gilks, CF; Gibb, DM; Hakim, J; DART Trial Team, ; (2011) Glomerular dysfunction and associated risk factors over 4-5 years following antiretroviral therapy initiation in Africa. Antiviral therapy, 16 (7). pp. 1011-20. ISSN 1359-6535 DOI:

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BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate long-term renal function in HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a CD4(+) T-cell count < 200 cells/mm³ in Africa. METHODS: This was an observational analysis within the DART trial randomizing 3,316 adults to routine laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM) or clinically driven monitoring (CDM). Serum creatinine was measured pre-ART (all ? 360 ?mol/l), at weeks 4 and 12, then every 12 weeks for 4-5 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. We analysed eGFR changes, and cumulative incidences of eGFR< 30 ml/min/1.73 m² and chronic kidney disease (CKD; <60 ml/min/1.73 m² or 25% decrease if <60 ml/min/1.73 m² pre-ART; confirmed >3 months). RESULTS: At ART initiation, median CD4(+) T-cell count was 86 cells/mm³; 1,492 (45%) participants had mild (60-< 90 ml/min/1.73 m²), 237 (7%) moderate (30-<60 ml/min/1.73 m² and 7 (0.2%) severe (15-<30 ml/min/1.73 m²) decreases in eGFR. First-line ART was zidovudine/lamivudine plus tenofovir (74%), abacavir (9%) or nevirapine (17%). By 4 years, cumulative incidence of eGFR<30 ml/min/1.73 m² was 2.8% (n=90) and CKD was 5.0% (n=162). Adjusted eGFR increases to 4 years were 1, 9 and 6 ml/min/1.73 m² with tenofovir, abacavir and nevirapine, respectively (P<0.001), and 4 and 2 ml/min/1.73 m² for LCM and CDM, respectively (P=0.005; 2 and 3 ml/min/1.73 m² to 5 years; P=0.81). CONCLUSIONS: On all regimens and monitoring strategies, severe eGFR impairment was infrequent; differences in eGFR changes were small, suggesting that first-line ART, including tenofovir, can be given safely without routine renal function monitoring.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Centre for Global Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
Tropical Epidemiology Group
PubMed ID: 22024517
Web of Science ID: 296941900010


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