Human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and prenatal risk factors for cryptorchidism and hypospadias: a nested case-control study

Fernandez, MF; Olmos, B; Granada, A; Lopez-Espinosa, MJ; Molina-Molina, JM; Fernandez, JM; Cruz, M; Olea-Serrano, F; Olea, N; (2007) Human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and prenatal risk factors for cryptorchidism and hypospadias: a nested case-control study. Environmental health perspectives, 115 Suppl 1. pp. 8-14. ISSN 0091-6765 DOI:

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BACKGROUND: Exposure to xenoestrogens during pregnancy may disturb the development and function of male sexual organs. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to determine whether the combined effect of environmental estrogens measured as total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB) is a risk factor for male urogenital malformations. METHODS: In a case-control study, nested in a mother-child cohort (n = 702) established at Granada University Hospital, we compared 50 newborns with diagnosis of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias with 114 boys without malformations matched by gestational age, date of birth, and parity. Controls did not differ from the total cohort in confounding variables. TEXB and levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides were measured in placenta tissues. Characteristics of parents, pregnancy, and birth were gathered by questionnaire. We used conditional and unconditional regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: TEXB from organohalogenated compounds was detectable in 72% and 54% of case and control placentas, respectively. Compared with controls, cases had an OR for detectable versus non-detectable TEXB of 2.82 (95% CI, 1.10-7.24). More pesticides were detected in cases than in controls (9.34 +/- 3.19 vs. 6.97 +/- 3.93). ORs for cases with detectable levels of pesticides, after adjusting for potential confounders in the conditional regression analysis, were o,p'-DDT (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.03-4.89), p,p'-DDT (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.21-5.72), lindane (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.36-8.38), mirex (OR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.22-6.66), and endosulfan alpha (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 0.99-4.82). Engagement of mothers in agriculture (OR = 3.47; 95% CI, 1.33-9.03), fathers' occupational exposure to xenoestrogens (OR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.11-8.01), and history of previous stillbirths (OR = 4.20; 95% CI, 1.11-16.66) were also associated with risk of malformations. CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased risk for male urogenital malformations related to the combined effect of environmental estrogens in placenta.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Adult, Agriculture, Case-Control Studies, Cryptorchidism/epidemiology/ etiology, Endocrine Disruptors/ toxicity, Estrogens/ toxicity, Female, Hospitals, University, Humans, Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/toxicity, Hypospadias/epidemiology/ etiology, Infant, Newborn, Male, Maternal Exposure/adverse effects, Occupational Exposure/ adverse effects, Paternal Exposure/adverse effects, Pesticide Residues/ toxicity, Placenta/chemistry, Pregnancy, Questionnaires, Risk Factors, Spain/epidemiology, Adult, Agriculture, Case-Control Studies, Cryptorchidism, epidemiology, etiology, Endocrine Disruptors, toxicity, Estrogens, toxicity, Female, Hospitals, University, Humans, Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated, toxicity, Hypospadias, epidemiology, etiology, Infant, Newborn, Male, Maternal Exposure, adverse effects, Occupational Exposure, adverse effects, Paternal Exposure, adverse effects, Pesticide Residues, toxicity, Placenta, chemistry, Pregnancy, Questionnaires, Risk Factors, Spain, epidemiology
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Public Health and Policy > Dept of Social and Environmental Health Research
PubMed ID: 18174944
Web of Science ID: 207172600002


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