Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America


Hashimoto, K; Schofield, CJ; (2012) Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America. Parasites & Vectors, 5. ISSN 1756-3305 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-45

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Abstract

Rhodnius prolixus is one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease. In Central America, it was first discovered in 1915 in El Salvador, from where it spread northwest to Guatemala and Mexico, and southeast to Nicaragua and Costa Rica, arriving also in Honduras in the late 1950s. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) by the antimalaria services of Costa Rica prevented its spread southwards, and similar IRS programmes appear to have eliminated it from El Salvador by the late 1970s. In 1997, by resolution of the Ministers of Health of the seven Central American countries, a multinational initiative against Chagas disease (IPCA) was launched with one of the specific objectives being the elimination of R. prolixus from the region. As a result, more and more infested areas were encountered, and progressively sprayed using an IRS strategy already deployed against Triatoma infestans in the southern cone countries of South America. In 2008, Guatemala became the first of these countries to be formally certified as free of Chagas disease transmission due to R. prolixus. The other infested countries have since been similarly certified, and none of these has reported the presence of R. prolixus since June 2010. Further surveillance is required, but current evidence suggests that R. prolixus may now been eliminated from throughout the mesoamerican region, with a corresponding decline in the incidence of T. cruzi infections.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Chagas disease, American trypanosomiasis, Rhodnius prolixus, vector, control, indoor residual spraying, elimination, Central America, chagas-disease, triatominae, infection
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Pathogen Molecular Biology
PubMed ID: 22357219
Web of Science ID: 302230900001
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/26401

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