Integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services: a cross sectional study on the effectiveness of the national implementation for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia.


Ferrer, BE; Webster, J; Bruce, J; Narh-Bana, SA; Narh, CT; Allotey, NK; Glover, R; Bart-Plange, C; Sagoe-Moses, I; Malm, K; Gyapong, M; (2016) Integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services: a cross sectional study on the effectiveness of the national implementation for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia. Malar J, 15 (1). p. 340. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1380-9

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the fertility of HIV-positive women is critical to estimating HIV epidemic trends from surveillance data and planning resource needs and coverage of prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission services in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the considerable scale-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of ART on the fertility outcomes of HIV-positive women.<br/> METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, PubMed and African Index Medicus. Studies were included if they were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and provided estimates of fertility outcomes (live births or pregnancies) among women on ART relative to a comparison group.<br/> RESULTS: Of 2070 unique references, 18 published papers met all eligibility criteria. Comparisons fell into four categories: fertility of HIV-positive women relative to HIV-negative women; fertility of HIV-positive women on ART compared to those not yet on ART; fertility differences by duration on ART; and temporal trends in fertility among HIV-positive women. Evidence indicates that fertility increases after approximately the first year on ART, and that while the fertility deficit of HIV-positive women is shrinking, their fertility remains below that of HIV-negative women. These findings, however, were based on limited data mostly during the period 2005-2010 when ART scaled up.<br/> CONCLUSIONS: Existing data are insufficient to characterize how ART has affected the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. Improving evidence about fertility among women on ART is an urgent priority for planning HIV resource needs and understanding HIV epidemic trends. Alternative data sources such as antenatal clinic data, general population cohorts and population-based surveys can be harnessed to understand the issue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.<br/> BACKGROUND: Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia: the Home-based Care (HBC) and the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). The objective was to assess the effectiveness of HBC and CHPS on utilization, appropriate treatment given and users' satisfaction for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia.<br/> METHODS: A household survey was conducted 2 and 8 years after implementation of HBC in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana, respectively. The study population was carers of children under-five who had fever, diarrhoea and/or cough in the last 2 weeks prior to the interview. HBC and CHPS utilization were assessed based on treatment-seeking behaviour when the child was sick. Appropriate treatment was based on adherence to national guidelines and satisfaction was based on the perceptions of the carers after the treatment-seeking visit.<br/> RESULTS: HBC utilization was 17.3 and 1.0 % in the Volta and Northern Regions respectively, while CHPS utilization in the same regions was 11.8 and 31.3 %, with large variation among districts. Regarding appropriate treatment of uncomplicated malaria, 36.7 % (n = 17) and 19.4 % (n = 1) of malaria cases were treated with ACT under the HBC in the Volta and Northern Regions respectively, and 14.7 % (n = 7) and 7.4 % (n = 26) under the CHPS in the Volta and Northern Regions. Regarding diarrhoea, 7.6 % (n = 4) of the children diagnosed with diarrhoea received oral rehydration salts (ORS) or were referred under the HBC in the Volta Region and 22.1 % (n = 6) and 5.6 % (n = 8) under the CHPS in the Volta and Northern Regions. Regarding suspected pneumonia, CHPS in the Northern Region gave the most appropriate treatment with 33.0 % (n = 4) of suspected cases receiving amoxicillin. Users of CHPS in the Volta Region were the most satisfied (97.7 % were satisfied or very satisfied) when compared with those of the HBC and of the Northern Region.<br/> CONCLUSIONS: HBC showed greater utilization by children under-five years of age in the Volta Region while CHPS was more utilized in the Northern Region. Utilization of HBC contributed to prompt treatment of fever in the Volta Region. Appropriate treatment for the three diseases was low in the HBC and CHPS, in both regions. Users were generally satisfied with the CHPS and HBC services.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
Research Centre: Malaria Centre
PubMed ID: 27371259
Web of Science ID: 378830800002
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2572573

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