Costs of introducing pneumococcal, rotavirus and a second dose of measles vaccine into the Zambian immunisation programme: Are expansions sustainable?

Griffiths, UK; Bozzani, FM; Chansa, C; Kinghorn, A; Kalesha-Masumbu, P; Rudd, C; Chilengi, R; Brenzel, L; Schutte, C; (2016) Costs of introducing pneumococcal, rotavirus and a second dose of measles vaccine into the Zambian immunisation programme: Are expansions sustainable? Vaccine. ISSN 0264-410X DOI:

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OBJECTIVE: Understanding the fertility of HIV-positive women is critical to estimating HIV epidemic trends from surveillance data and planning resource needs and coverage of prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission services in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the considerable scale-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of ART on the fertility outcomes of HIV-positive women.<br/> METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, PubMed and African Index Medicus. Studies were included if they were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and provided estimates of fertility outcomes (live births or pregnancies) among women on ART relative to a comparison group.<br/> RESULTS: Of 2070 unique references, 18 published papers met all eligibility criteria. Comparisons fell into four categories: fertility of HIV-positive women relative to HIV-negative women; fertility of HIV-positive women on ART compared to those not yet on ART; fertility differences by duration on ART; and temporal trends in fertility among HIV-positive women. Evidence indicates that fertility increases after approximately the first year on ART, and that while the fertility deficit of HIV-positive women is shrinking, their fertility remains below that of HIV-negative women. These findings, however, were based on limited data mostly during the period 2005-2010 when ART scaled up.<br/> CONCLUSIONS: Existing data are insufficient to characterize how ART has affected the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. Improving evidence about fertility among women on ART is an urgent priority for planning HIV resource needs and understanding HIV epidemic trends. Alternative data sources such as antenatal clinic data, general population cohorts and population-based surveys can be harnessed to understand the issue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.<br/> BACKGROUND: Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia: the Home-based Care (HBC) and the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). The objective was to assess the effectiveness of HBC and CHPS on utilization, appropriate treatment given and users\\\' satisfaction for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia.<br/> METHODS: A household survey was conducted 2 and 8 years after implementation of HBC in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana, respectively. The study population was carers of children under-five who had fever, diarrhoea and/or cough in the last 2 weeks prior to the interview. HBC and CHPS utilization were assessed based on treatment-seeking behaviour when the child was sick. Appropriate treatment was based on adherence to national guidelines and satisfaction was based on the perceptions of the carers after the treatment-seeking visit.<br/> RESULTS: HBC utilization was 17.3 and 1.0 % in the Volta and Northern Regions respectively, while CHPS utilization in the same regions was 11.8 and 31.3 %, with large variation among districts. Regarding appropriate treatment of uncomplicated malaria, 36.7 % (n = 17) and 19.4 % (n = 1) of malaria cases were treated with ACT under the HBC in the Volta and Northern Regions respectively, and 14.7 % (n = 7) and 7.4 % (n = 26) under the CHPS in the Volta and Northern Regions. Regarding diarrhoea, 7.6 % (n = 4) of the children diagnosed with diarrhoea received oral rehydration salts (ORS) or were referred under the HBC in the Volta Region and 22.1 % (n = 6) and 5.6 % (n = 8) under the CHPS in the Volta and Northern Regions. Regarding suspected pneumonia, CHPS in the Northern Region gave the most appropriate treatment with 33.0 % (n = 4) of suspected cases receiving amoxicillin. Users of CHPS in the Volta Region were the most satisfied (97.7 % were satisfied or very satisfied) when compared with those of the HBC and of the Northern Region.<br/> CONCLUSIONS: HBC showed greater utilization by children under-five years of age in the Volta Region while CHPS was more utilized in the Northern Region. Utilization of HBC contributed to prompt treatment of fever in the Volta Region. Appropriate treatment for the three diseases was low in the HBC and CHPS, in both regions. Users were generally satisfied with the CHPS and HBC services.<br/> BACKGROUND: Introduction of new vaccines in low- and lower middle-income countries has accelerated since Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance was established in 2000. This study sought to (i) estimate the costs of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rotavirus vaccine and a second dose of measles vaccine in Zambia; and (ii) assess affordability of the new vaccines in relation to Gavi's co-financing and eligibility policies.<br/> METHODS: Data on 'one-time' costs of cold storage expansions, training and social mobilisation were collected from the government and development partners. A detailed economic cost study of routine immunisation based on a representative sample of 51 health facilities provided information on labour and vaccine transport costs. Gavi co-financing payments and immunisation programme costs were projected until 2022 when Zambia is expected to transition from Gavi support. The ability of Zambia to self-finance both new and traditional vaccines was assessed by comparing these with projected government health expenditures.<br/> RESULTS: 'One-time' costs of introducing the three vaccines amounted to US$ 0.28 per capita. The new vaccines increased annual immunisation programme costs by 38%, resulting in economic cost per fully immunised child of US$ 102. Co-financing payments on average increased by 10% during 2008-2017, but must increase 49% annually between 2017 and 2022. In 2014, the government spent approximately 6% of its health expenditures on immunisation. Assuming no real budget increases, immunisation would account for around 10% in 2022. Vaccines represented 1% of government, non-personnel expenditures for health in 2014, and would be 6% in 2022, assuming no real budget increases.<br/> CONCLUSION: While the introduction of new vaccines is justified by expected positive health impacts, long-term affordability will be challenging in light of the current economic climate in Zambia. The government needs to both allocate more resources to the health sector and seek efficiency gains within service provision.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Public Health and Policy > Dept of Global Health and Development
Research Centre: Social and Mathematical Epidemiology (SaME)
SaME Modelling & Economics
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PubMed ID: 27371102
Web of Science ID: 381170300018


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