Single low dose primaquine to reduce gametocyte carriage and Plasmodium falciparum transmission after artemether-lumefantrine in children with asymptomatic infection: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.


Gonçalves, BP; Tiono, AB; Ouédraogo, A; Guelbéogo, WM; Bradley, J; Nebie, I; Siaka, D; Lanke, K; Eziefula, AC; Diarra, A; Pett, H; Bougouma, EC; Sirima, SB; Drakeley, C; Bousema, T; (2016) Single low dose primaquine to reduce gametocyte carriage and Plasmodium falciparum transmission after artemether-lumefantrine in children with asymptomatic infection: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Med, 14 (1). p. 40. ISSN 1741-7015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-016-0581-y

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Abstract

A single low dose (0.25 mg/kg) of primaquine is recommended as a gametocytocide in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapies for Plasmodium falciparum but its effect on post-treatment gametocyte circulation and infectiousness to mosquitoes has not been quantified. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 360 asymptomatic parasitaemic children aged 2-15 years were enrolled and assigned to receive: artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and a dose of placebo; AL and a 0.25 mg/kg primaquine dose; or AL and a 0.40 mg/kg primaquine dose. On days 0, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 14, gametocytes were detected and quantified by microscopy, Pfs25 mRNA quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA), and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). For a subset of participants, pre- and post-treatment infectiousness was assessed by mosquito feeding assays on days -1, 3, 7, 10 and 14. Both primaquine arms had lower gametocyte prevalences after day 3 compared to the placebo arm, regardless of gametocyte detection method. The mean (95 % confidence interval) number of days to gametocyte clearance in children with patent gametocytes on day 0 (N = 150) was 19.7 (14.6 - 24.8), 7.7 (6.3 - 9.1) and 8.2 (6.7 - 9.6) for the AL-placebo, the 0.25 mg/kg primaquine dose and the 0.40 mg/kg primaquine dose arms, respectively. While 38.0 % (30/79) of selected gametocytaemic individuals were infectious before treatment, only 1/251 participant, from the AL-placebo group, infected mosquitoes after treatment. We observed similar gametocyte clearance rates after 0.25 and 0.40 mg/kg primaquine doses. Infectivity to mosquitoes after AL was very low and absent in primaquine arms. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01935882.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Immunology and Infection
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Malaria Centre
PubMed ID: 26952094
Web of Science ID: 371468200001
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2536574

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