Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.


Elze, MC; Gimeno, H; Tustin, K; Baker, L; Lumsden, DE; Hutton, JL; Lin, JS; (2015) Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study. Developmental medicine and child neurology. ISSN 0012-1622 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.12965

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Abstract

Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, p<0.001), with worse dystonia severity implying worse function. Secondary dystonias had worse dystonia and less function than primary dystonias (p<0.001). A longer proportion of life lived with dystonia is associated with more severe dystonia (rs =0.42, p<0.001). The BFM-M is strongly linked with the GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS, irrespective of aetiology. Each scale offers interrelated but complementary information and is applicable to all aetiologies. Movement disorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Medical Statistics
PubMed ID: 26616635
Web of Science ID: 368981300018
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2373994

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