PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 Gene Expression on T-Cells and Natural Killer Cells Declines in Conjunction with a Reduction in PD-1 Protein during the Intensive Phase of Tuberculosis Treatment.


Hassan, SS; Akram, M; King, EC; Dockrell, HM; Cliff, JM; (2015) PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 Gene Expression on T-Cells and Natural Killer Cells Declines in Conjunction with a Reduction in PD-1 Protein during the Intensive Phase of Tuberculosis Treatment. PLoS One, 10 (9). e0137646. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137646

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Abstract

The PD-1 axis is a cell intrinsic immunoregulatory pathway that mediates T cell exhaustion in chronic infection particularly in some viral infections. We hypothesized that PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 would be highly expressed in untreated tuberculosis patients compared to controls due to their chronic infection and would decrease with successful TB treatment. Untreated tuberculosis patients (n = 26) were recruited at diagnosis and followed up during treatment. Household contacts (n = 24) were recruited to establish baseline differences. Blood gene expression ex vivo was investigated using qRT-PCR. Flow cytometry was performed to establish protein expression patterns. PD-L1 gene expression was found to be elevated in active TB disease; however, this was not observed for PD-1 or PD-L2. The intensive phase of TB treatment was associated with a significant decline in PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 gene expression. PD-1 protein expression on the surface of NK cells, CD8+ and CD4+ T cells was similar in patients with active TB disease compared to controls but declined with successful TB treatment, with the greatest decline occurring on the NK cells followed by CD8+ T cells and then CD4+ T cells. Granzyme B/PD-1 co-expression declined with successful intensive phase treatment. Modulation of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway through TB treatment indicates changes in the peripheral T cell response caused by live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) followed by the response to dead bacilli, antigen-release and immuno-pathology resolution. The PD-1 axis could be a host drug target for immunomodulatory treatments in the future.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Academic Services & Administration > Academic Administration
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Immunology and Infection
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Research Centre: TB Centre
PubMed ID: 26359860
Web of Science ID: 361043100064
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2299092

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