Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Africa started on combination antiretroviral therapy: an observational analysis of the DART cohort.


Walker, AS; Ford, D; Gilks, CF; Munderi, P; Ssali, F; Reid, A; Katabira, E; Grosskurth, H; Mugyenyi, P; Hakim, J; Darbyshire, JH; Gibb, DM; Babiker, AG; (2010) Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Africa started on combination antiretroviral therapy: an observational analysis of the DART cohort. Lancet, 375 (9722). pp. 1278-86. ISSN 0140-6736 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60057-8

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis can reduce mortality from untreated HIV infection in Africa; whether benefits occur alongside combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear. We estimated the effect of prophylaxis after ART initiation in adults. METHODS: Participants in our observational analysis were from the DART randomised trial of management strategies in HIV-infected, symptomatic, previously untreated African adults starting triple-drug ART with CD4 counts lower than 200 cells per muL. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was not routinely used or randomly allocated, but was variably prescribed by clinicians. We estimated effects on clinical outcomes, CD4 cell count, and body-mass index (BMI) using marginal structural models to adjust for time-dependent confounding by indication. DART was registered, number ISRCTN13968779. FINDINGS: 3179 participants contributed 14 214 years of follow-up (8128 [57%] person-years on co-trimoxazole). Time-dependent predictors of co-trimoxazole use were current CD4 cell count, haemoglobin concentration, BMI, and previous WHO stage 3 or 4 events on ART. Present prophylaxis significantly reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85; p=0.001). Mortality risk reduction on ART was substantial to 12 weeks (0.41, 0.27-0.65), sustained from 12-72 weeks (0.56, 0.37-0.86), but not evident subsequently (0.96, 0.63-1.45; heterogeneity p=0.02). Variation in mortality reduction was not accounted for by time on co-trimoxazole or current CD4 cell count. Prophylaxis reduced frequency of malaria (0.74, 0.63-0.88; p=0.0005), an effect that was maintained with time, but we observed no effect on new WHO stage 4 events (0.86, 0.69-1.07; p=0.17), CD4 cell count (difference vs non-users, -3 cells per muL [-12 to 6]; p=0.50), or BMI (difference vs non-users, -0.04 kg/m(2) [-0.20 to 0.13); p=0.68]. INTERPRETATION: Our results reinforce WHO guidelines and provide strong motivation for provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for at least 72 weeks for all adults starting combination ART in Africa. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, the UK Department for International Development, the Rockefeller Foundation, GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead Sciences, Boehringer-Ingelheim, and Abbott Laboratories.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Centre for Global Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
Tropical Epidemiology Group
PubMed ID: 20347483
Web of Science ID: 276858400030
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2257

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