Implementation Research to Inform the Use of Xpert MTB/RIF in Primary Health Care Facilities in High TB and HIV Settings in Resource Constrained Settings.


Muyoyeta, M; Moyo, M; Kasese, N; Ndhlovu, M; Milimo, D; Mwanza, W; Kapata, N; Schaap, A; Godfrey Faussett, P; Ayles, H; (2015) Implementation Research to Inform the Use of Xpert MTB/RIF in Primary Health Care Facilities in High TB and HIV Settings in Resource Constrained Settings. PLoS One, 10 (6). e0126376. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126376

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Abstract

The current cost of Xpert MTB RIF (Xpert) consumables is such that algorithms are needed to select which patients to prioritise for testing with Xpert. To evaluate two algorithms for prioritisation of Xpert in primary health care settings in a high TB and HIV burden setting. Consecutive, presumptive TB patients with a cough of any duration were offered either Xpert or Fluorescence microscopy (FM) test depending on their CXR score or HIV status. In one facility, sputa from patients with an abnormal CXR were tested with Xpert and those with a normal CXR were tested with FM ("CXR algorithm"). CXR was scored automatically using a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) program. In the other facility, patients who were HIV positive were tested using Xpert and those who were HIV negative were tested with FM ("HIV algorithm"). Of 9482 individuals pre-screened with CXR, Xpert detected TB in 2090/6568 (31.8%) with an abnormal CXR, and FM was AFB positive in 8/2455 (0.3%) with a normal CXR. Of 4444 pre-screened with HIV, Xpert detected TB in 508/2265 (22.4%) HIV positive and FM was AFB positive in 212/1920 (11.0%) in HIV negative individuals. The notification rate of new bacteriologically confirmed TB increased; from 366 to 620/ 100,000/yr and from 145 to 261/100,000/yr at the CXR and HIV algorithm sites respectively. The median time to starting TB treatment at the CXR site compared to the HIV algorithm site was; 1(IQR 1-3 days) and 3 (2-5 days) (p<0.0001) respectively. Use of Xpert in a resource-limited setting at primary care level in conjunction with pre-screening tests reduced the number of Xpert tests performed. The routine use of Xpert resulted in additional cases of confirmed TB patients starting treatment. However, there was no increase in absolute numbers of patients starting TB treatment. Same day diagnosis and treatment commencement was achieved for both bacteriologically confirmed and empirically diagnosed patients where Xpert was used in conjunction with CXR.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Tropical Epidemiology Group
PubMed ID: 26030301
Web of Science ID: 356630900026
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2197064

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