Increased Disease due to Haemophilus influenzae Type b: Population-based Surveillance in Eastern Gambia, 2008-2013.


Mackenzie, GA; Ikumapayi, UN; Scott, S; Idoko, O; Odutola, A; Ndiaye, M; Sahito, SM; Osuorah, CD; Manjang, A; Jarju, S; Bojang, A; Roca, A; Secka, O; Zaman, A; Ceesay, L; Lowe-Jallow, Y; Sambou, S; Jasseh, M; Antonio, M; Greenwood, B; Kampmann, B; Mulholland, K; Corrah, T; Howie, SR; (2015) Increased Disease due to Haemophilus influenzae Type b: Population-based Surveillance in Eastern Gambia, 2008-2013. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 34 (5). e107-12. ISSN 0891-3668 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000645

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: In 1997, The Gambia became the first African country to introduce conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with good disease control through to 2010.<br/> METHODS: Culture-based surveillance for invasive bacterial disease in eastern Gambia, specifically the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System (BHDSS) area, was conducted from 12 May 2008 and in Fuladu West district from 12 September 2011 until 31 December 2013. In 2011, Hib serology was measured in 5-34-year-olds.<br/> RESULTS: In all, 16,735 of 17,932 (93%) eligible patients were investigated. We detected 57 cases of invasive H. influenzae disease; 24 (42%) were type b. No cases of Hib disease were detected in the BHDSS area in 2008-2009; 1 was detected in 2010, 2 in 2011, 4 in 2012 and 7 in 2013. In 2013, the incidence of Hib disease in those aged 2-11 and 2-59 months in the BHDSS area was 88 [95% confidence interval (CI): 29-207] and 22 (95% CI: 9-45) cases per 10 person-years, respectively. In 2013, disease incidence in Fuladu West among those aged 0-59 months was 26 (95% CI: 7-67) cases per 10 person-years. Nine of 24 Hib cases were vaccine failures (2 HIV positive) and 9 were too young to have been vaccinated. The proportion of children aged 5-6 years (n = 223) with anti-Hib IgG ≥1.0 μg/mL was 67%; the antibody nadir was in 9-14-year-olds (n = 58) with 55% above threshold.<br/> CONCLUSIONS: Hib disease in eastern Gambia has increased in recent years. Surveillance in developing countries should remain alert to detect such changes.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Medical Statistics
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
PubMed ID: 25879650
Web of Science ID: 353344500002
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2162883

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