Evaluation of the comparative efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine and artesunate-amodiaquine-chlorpheniramine (Artemoclo™) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria in Nigerian children.


Falade, CO; Dada-Adegbola, HO; Ogunkunle, OO; Oguike, MC; Nash, O; Ademowo, OG; (2014) Evaluation of the comparative efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine and artesunate-amodiaquine-chlorpheniramine (Artemoclo™) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria in Nigerian children. Medical principles and practice , 23 (3). pp. 204-11. ISSN 1011-7571 DOI: 10.1159/000360578

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Abstract

To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artesunate-amodiaquine-chlorpheniramine (AQC) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria among Southwest Nigerian children. One hundred and sixty children aged 6 months to 14 years with acute uncomplicated malaria were randomized to AL (n = 53), ASAQ (n = 53), or AQC (n = 54). Enrollees were seen daily on days 0-3 and then on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 for clinical and parasitological evaluations. Paired samples of genomic DNA at enrolment and at the time of recurrent parasitaemia were genotyped using nested PCR to distinguish between reinfection and recrudescence. Detailed haematological and biochemical evaluations were carried out in a subset of enrollees on days 0, 7 and 28 as part of a safety evaluation. Of the 160 children, 144 (90%) completed the study. The mean fever clearance times and parasite clearance times for AL, ASAQ and AQC were comparable (p = 0.94 and p = 0.122, respectively). On day 14, the adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) for AL and AQC was 100% and for ASAQ it was 90% (p = 0.39). The PCR-uncorrected results on days 28 and 42 and the ACPR-corrected results on day 42 were similar for all drugs (p = 0.62 and p = 0.56, respectively). AQC resulted in the best parasite clearance and haematological recovery on day 2 (p = 0.022 and p = 0.018, respectively). Biochemical parameters were not adversely affected by the three artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) and these were well tolerated. The three ACTs were efficacious and safe, but AQC resulted in a better haematological recovery on day 2 and higher cure rates throughout the study period.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Immunology and Infection
Research Centre: Antimicrobial Resistance Centre (AMR)
Malaria Centre
PubMed ID: 24732940
Web of Science ID: 336458800002
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2124380

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