Epstein-Barr Virus Load in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Uganda


Petrara, MR; Penazzato, M; Massavon, W; Nabachwa, S; Nannyonga, M; Mazza, A; Gianesin, K; del Bianco, P; Lundin, R; Sumpter, C; Zanchetta, M; Giaquinto, C; de Rossi, A; (2014) Epstein-Barr Virus Load in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Uganda. The Journal of infectious diseases, 210 (3). pp. 392-399. ISSN 0022-1899 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu099

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Abstract

Background. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is involved in a wide range of malignancies, particularly in immunocompromised subjects. In Africa, EBV primary infection occurs during early childhood, but little is known about the EBV load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children. Methods. Blood samples from 213 HIV-1-infected children, 140 of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), were collected at the Nsambya Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, and obtained for dried blood spot analysis. Nucleic acids were extracted and analyzed for quantification of EBV types 1 and 2; 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), a marker of microbial translocation; and HIV-1 RNA. Results. Ninety-two of 140 children (66%) receiving ART and 57 of 73 ART-naive children (78%) had detectable EBV DNA levels. Coinfection with both EBV types was less frequent in ART-treated children than in ART-naive children (odds ratio, 0.54 [95% confidence interval {CI},.30-.98]; P = .042). Mean EBV DNA levels (+/- standard deviation) were lower in the former (3.99 +/- 0.59 vs 4.22 +/- 0.54 log(10) copies/mL; P = .006) and tended to be inversely associated with ART duration. EBV DNA levels were higher in children with an HIV-1 RNA load of > 3 log(10) copies/mL of blood (regression coefficient, 0.32 [95% CI,.05-. 59]; P = .020) and correlated with circulating 16S rDNA levels (r(s) = 0.25 [95% CI,.02-.46]; P = .031). Conclusions. These findings suggest that ART, by limiting HIV-1 replication, microbial translocation, and related immune activation, prevents superinfection with both EBV types and keeps EBV viremia down, thus potentially reducing the risk of EBV-associated lymphomas.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Adolescent, Anti-HIV Agents, therapeutic use, Child, Child, Preschool, DNA, Viral, isolation & purification, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, virology, Female, HIV Infections, blood, complications, drug therapy, epidemiology, HIV-1, isolation & purification, Herpesvirus 4, Human, isolation & purification, Humans, Infant, Male, Viral Load
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
PubMed ID: 24550442
Web of Science ID: 340242900008
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/1922965

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