Ability of preventive therapy to cure latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals in high-burden settings.


Houben, RM; Sumner, T; Grant, AD; White, RG; (2014) Ability of preventive therapy to cure latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals in high-burden settings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111 (14). pp. 5325-30. ISSN 0027-8424 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1317660111

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Abstract

: Trials of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for people living with HIV in southern Africa have shown high rates of tuberculosis disease immediately after cessation of therapy. This could be due to the lack of cure following preventive therapy or reinfection with rapid progression to disease. Using a model fitted to trial data, we estimate the degree to which preventive therapies cure latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals in high-tuberculosis-burden settings. We identified randomized controlled trials that compared IPT to placebo or alternative regimen in HIV-positive, tuberculin skin test positive individuals. A mathematical model describing tuberculosis transmission in a closed cohort of HIV-positive, M. tuberculosis infected, antiretroviral therapy naive individuals following completion of preventive therapy (or placebo) was fitted to posttherapy tuberculosis rates to estimate the annual risk of M. tuberculosis reinfection and the proportion of individuals whose latent infection was cured after therapy. Three trials met our inclusion criteria. Estimated annual risks of reinfection ranged between 3.7 and 4.9%. Our results suggest 6 mo of isoniazid cured in a small proportion [estimated proportion cured = 0% (interquartile range 0-30.9%)]. The proportion cured for 3-mo regimens containing rifampicin or rifapentine was 19-100%. IPT alone does not cure existing infections in the majority of HIV-infected individuals. In high-incidence settings, continuous IPT should be integrated with HIV care. Where the risk of reinfection is lower, preventive therapy with more curative drugs should be preferred for HIV-positive individuals to achieve durable patient benefit.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Research Centre: HIV Research Group
TB Centre
PubMed ID: 24706842
Web of Science ID: 333985200065
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/1635854

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