Pyrethroid resistance/susceptibility and differential urban/rural distribution of Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. malaria vectors in Nigeria and Ghana

Kristan, M; Fleischmann, H; della Torre, A; Stich, A; Curtis, CF; (2003) Pyrethroid resistance/susceptibility and differential urban/rural distribution of Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. malaria vectors in Nigeria and Ghana. Medical and veterinary entomology, 17 (3). pp. 326-32. ISSN 0269-283X DOI:

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Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and DDT caused by the kdr gene in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) has been reported in several West African countries. To test for pyrethroid resistance in two more countries, we sampled populations of the An. gambiae complex from south-western Ghana and from urban and rural localities in Ogun State, south-west Nigeria. Adult mosquitoes, reared from field-collected larvae, were exposed to the WHO-recommended discriminating dosage of exposure for 1 h to DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% or permethrin 0.75% and mortality was recorded 24 h post-exposure. Susceptibility of An. gambiae s.l. to DDT was 94-100% in Ghana and 72-100% in Nigeria, indicating low levels of DDT resistance. Deltamethrin gave the highest mortality rates: 97-100% in Ghana, 95-100% in Nigeria. Ghanaian samples of An. gambiae s.l. were fully susceptible to permethrin, whereas some resistance to permethrin was detected at 4/5 Nigerian localities (percentage mortalities 75, 82, 88, 90 and 100%), with survivors including both An. arabiensis Patton and An. gambiae s.s. identified by PCR assay. Even so, the mean knockdown time was not significantly different from a susceptible reference strain, indicating absence or low frequency of kdr-type resistance. Such low levels of pyrethroid resistance are unlikely to impair the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria transmission. Among Nigerian samples of An. gambiae s.l., the majority from two urban localities were identified as An. arabiensis, whereas the majority from rural localities were An. gambiae s.s. These findings are consistent with those of M. Coluzzi et al. (1979). Differences of ecological distribution between molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. were also found, with rural samples almost exclusively of the S-form, whereas the M-form predominated in urban samples. It is suggested that 'urban island' populations of An. arabiensis and of An. gambiae s.s. M-form in the rainforest belt of West Africa might be appropriate targets for elimination of these malaria vectors by the sterile insect technique.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Anopheles arabiensis, An. gambiae, DDT resistance, deltamethrin, kdr, malaria vectors, M & S molecular forms, permethrin, pyrethroid resistance, rainforest, sibling species, urban island population, Ghana, Nigeria, kdr mutation, west-africa, insecticide resistance, incipient, speciation, impregnated bednets, cote-divoire, complex, identification, culicidae, mosquitos
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
PubMed ID: 12941018
Web of Science ID: 185088600013


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