The descriptive epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae nasopharyngeal carriage in children and adults in Kilifi district, Kenya.


Abdullahi, O; Nyiro, J; Lewa, P; Slack, M; Scott, JA; (2008) The descriptive epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae nasopharyngeal carriage in children and adults in Kilifi district, Kenya. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 27 (1). pp. 59-64. ISSN 0891-3668 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31814da70c

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)

Abstract

BACKGROUND Transmission and nasopharyngeal colonization are necessary steps en route to invasive pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae disease but their patterns vary geographically. In East Africa we do not know how these pathogens are transmitted between population subgroups nor which serotypes circulate commonly. METHODS We did 2 cross-sectional nasopharyngeal swab surveys selecting subjects randomly from a population register to estimate prevalence and risk-factors for carriage in 2004. H. influenzae type b vaccine was introduced in 2001. RESULTS Of 450 individuals sampled in the dry season, 414 were resampled during the rainy season. Among subjects 0-4, 5-9, and 10-85 years old pneumococcal carriage prevalence was 57%, 41%, and 6.4%, respectively. H. influenzae prevalence was 26%, 24%, and 3.0%, respectively. Prevalence of H. influenzae type b in children <5 years was 1.7%. Significant risk factors for pneumococcal carriage were rainy season (odds ratio [OR]: 1.65), coryza (OR: 2.29), and coculture of noncapsulate H. influenzae (OR: 7.46). Coryza was also a risk factor for H. influenzae carriage (OR: 1.90). Of 128 H. influenzae isolates, 113 were noncapsulate. Among 279 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 40 serotypes were represented and the distribution of serotypes varied significantly with age; 7-valent vaccine-types, vaccine-related types, and nonvaccine types comprised 47%, 19%, and 34% of strains from children aged <5 years. Among older persons they comprised 25%, 28%, and 47%, respectively (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS The study shows that pneumococcal carriage is common up to 9 years of age and that the majority of serotypes carried at all ages are not covered specifically by the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Vaccine Centre
PubMed ID: 18162940
Web of Science ID: 252076200012
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/1440405

Statistics


Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads since deposit
0Downloads
304Hits
Accesses by country - last 12 months
Accesses by referrer - last 12 months
Impact and interest
Additional statistics for this record are available via IRStats2

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item