Clustering of risk factors and social class in childhood and adulthood in British women's heart and health study: cross sectional analysis


Ebrahim, S; Montaner, D; Lawlor, DA; (2004) Clustering of risk factors and social class in childhood and adulthood in British women's heart and health study: cross sectional analysis. BMJ, 328 (7444). p. 861. ISSN 1468-5833 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38034.702836.55

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To examine co-occurrence and clustering of risk factors used in the Framingham equation by social class in childhood and adult life. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 23 towns across England, Wales, and Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 2936 women aged 60-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of risk factors (hypertension, obesity, smoking, left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography, diabetes, and low concentration of high density cholesterol); ratios of observed to expected frequencies of clusters of risk factors. RESULTS: Risk factors were more common in women from manual social classes in either childhood or adult life, and the co-occurrence of three or four of these risk factors was greater among more disadvantaged groups. Within the four socioeconomic groups, these risk factors occurred together more than would be expected from their individual frequency distributions, indicating that they were clustered. The extent of this clustering was similar in all four social class groups. CONCLUSIONS: Clustering of risk factors included in the Framingham risk function occurs in all social class groups, but the lack of social patterning makes it unlikely that clustering is an explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease. As the proportion of women with co-occurrence of risk factors is greatest in those from manual social class in childhood, this measure of socioeconomic position might prove useful in risk prediction.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Aged, Child, Cluster Analysis, Female, Great Britain/epidemiology, Heart Diseases/*epidemiology, Humans, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Risk Factors, Social Class, Women's Health, Aged, Child, Cluster Analysis, Female, Great Britain, epidemiology, Heart Diseases, epidemiology, Humans, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Risk Factors, Social Class, Women's Health
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Centre for Global Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
PubMed ID: 15006898
Web of Science ID: 220871400014
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/12710

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