Giardia duodenalis infection and wastewater irrigation in Pakistan.

Ensink, JH; van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, FP; (2005) Giardia duodenalis infection and wastewater irrigation in Pakistan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 100 (6). pp. 538-42. ISSN 0035-9203 DOI:

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The risk of Giardia duodenalis (Giardia) infection in farmers using untreated wastewater in agriculture was investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, through a cross-sectional study. The study found a significantly increased risk of (asymptomatic) Giardia infection in wastewater farming households when compared with farming households using regular (non-wastewater) irrigation water (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.5-4.4). Textile labourers who were employed in the city of Faisalabad but who lived in the same village as the wastewater farmers showed a risk of Giardia infection in between that of wastewater and non-wastewater farming households (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.1). This study suggests that exposure to wastewater with high Giardia concentrations carries an increased risk for (asymptomatic) Giardia infection.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
PubMed ID: 16336984
Web of Science ID: 237143200008


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