Cause-specific mortality in old age in relation to body mass index in middle age and in old age: follow-up of the Whitehall cohort of male civil servants


Breeze, E; Clarke, R; Shipley, MJ; Marmot, MG; Fletcher, AE; (2006) Cause-specific mortality in old age in relation to body mass index in middle age and in old age: follow-up of the Whitehall cohort of male civil servants. International journal of epidemiology, 35 (1). pp. 169-178. ISSN 0300-5771 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi212

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Abstract

Background The relevance of body mass index (BMI) to cause-specific mortality in old age is uncertain. Objectives To examine cause-specific 5 year mortality in old age by BMI in old age and middle age (40-69 years). Methods Cox proportional hazards for mortality rates among 4862 former male civil servants in relation to quartiles of BMI measured when screened in 1968-70 and when resurveyed in 1997-98 (median age 76 years). Results The association between all-cause mortality after resurvey and BMI in old age was U-shaped with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5) for the lightest and heaviest categories relative to the middle two. Among 'healthy' men the lightest (< 22.7 kg/m(2)) had greatest all-cause mortality. The heaviest men (> 26.6 kg/m(2)) had increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the first two years or for the whole period if never-smokers. Respiratory mortality was inversely associated with BMI in old age [adjusted HR for trend per BMI category increase 0.6 (0.5-0.7)] but cancer mortality lacked a clear pattern. Net gain or loss of 10 kg or more between middle and old age was a strong predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality. Conclusions The shape of the association between BMI in old age and mortality differs by cause of death. Major weight change over time is a warning signal for higher CVD mortality. Having BMI < 22.7 kg/m(2) in old age is associated with above-average mortality rates even if apparently healthy.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology
PubMed ID: 16284405
Web of Science ID: 235281700036
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/12112

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