Excess child mortality after discharge from hospital in Kilifi, Kenya: a retrospective cohort analysis.

Moïsi, JC; Gatakaa, H; Berkley, JA; Maitland, K; Mturi, N; Newton, CR; Njuguna, P; Nokes, J; Ojal, J; Bauni, E; Tsofa, B; Peshu, N; Marsh, K; Williams, TN; Scott, JA; (2011) Excess child mortality after discharge from hospital in Kilifi, Kenya: a retrospective cohort analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89 (10). 725-32, 732A. ISSN 0042-9686 DOI: 10.2471/BLT.11.089235

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BACKGROUND: Estimates of the burden of disease in adults in sub-Saharan Africa largely rely on models of sparse data. We aimed to measure the burden of disease in adults living in a rural area of coastal Kenya with use of linked clinical and demographic surveillance data.<br/> METHODS: We used data from 18,712 adults admitted to Kilifi District Hospital (Kilifi, Kenya) between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2012, linked to 790,635 person-years of observation within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, to establish the rates and major causes of admission to hospital. These data were also used to model disease-specific disability-adjusted life-years lost in the population. We used geographical mapping software to calculate admission rates stratified by distance from the hospital.<br/> FINDINGS: The main causes of admission to hospital in women living within 5 km of the hospital were infectious and parasitic diseases (303 per 100,000 person-years of observation), pregnancy-related disorders (239 per 100,000 person-years of observation), and circulatory illnesses (105 per 100,000 person-years of observation). Leading causes of hospital admission in men living within 5 km of the hospital were infectious and parasitic diseases (169 per 100,000 person-years of observation), injuries (135 per 100,000 person-years of observation), and digestive system disorders (112 per 100,000 person-years of observation). HIV-related diseases were the leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years lost (2050 per 100,000 person-years of observation), followed by non-communicable diseases (741 per 100,000 person-years of observation). For every 5 km increase in distance from the hospital, all-cause admission rates decreased by 11% (95% CI 7–14) in men and 20% (17–23) in women. The magnitude of this decline was highest for endocrine disorders in women (35%; 95% CI 22–46) and neoplasms in men (30%; 9–45).<br/> INTERPRETATION: Adults in rural Kenya face a combined burden of infectious diseases, pregnancy-related disorders, cardiovascular illnesses, and injuries. Disease burden estimates based on hospital data are affected by distance from the hospital, and the amount of underestimation of disease burden differs by both disease and sex.<br/> FUNDING: The Wellcome Trust, GAVI Alliance.<br/> : Crude rates such as the crude death rate are functions of both the age-specific rates and the age composition of a population. However, differences in the age structure between two populations or two time periods can result in specious differences in the corresponding crude rates making direct comparisons between populations or across time inappropriate. Therefore, when comparing crude rates between populations, it is desirable to eliminate or minimize the influence of age composition. This task is accomplished by using a standard age structure yielding an age-standardized rate. This paper proposes an updated International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) standard for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) based on newly available data from the health and demographic surveillance system site members of the INDEPTH network located throughout Africa and southern Asia. The updated INDEPTH standard should better reflect the age structure of LMICs and result in more accurate health indicators and demographic rates. We demonstrate use of the new INDEPTH standard along with several existing \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' standards and show how resulting age-standardized crude deaths rates differ when using the various standard age compositions.<br/> BACKGROUND: The impact on carriage and optimal schedule for primary vaccination of older children with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) are unknown.<br/> METHODS: 600 Kenyan children aged 12-59 months were vaccinated at days 0, 60 and 180 in a double-blind randomized controlled trial according to the following vaccine sequence: Group A: PHiD-CV, PHiD-CV, diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); Group B: PHiD-CV, DTaP, PHiD-CV; Group C: hepatitis A vaccine (HAV), DTaP, HAV. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae was measured at five timepoints. In 375 subjects, serotype-specific responses were measured by 22F-inhibition ELISA and opsonophagocytic killing assays (OPA) one month after vaccination.<br/> RESULTS: Following one dose of PHiD-CV, >90% of recipients developed IgG≥0.35 µg/mL to serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 9V and 18C and OPA≥8 to serotypes 4, 7F, 9V, 18C, 23F. After a second dose >90% of recipients had IgG≥0.35 µg/mL to all vaccine serotypes and OPA≥8 to all vaccine serotypes except 1 and 6B. At day 180, carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci was 21% in recipients of two doses of PHiD-CV (Group A) compared to 31% in controls (p = 0.04). Fever after dose 1 was reported by 41% of PHiD-CV recipients compared to 26% of HAV recipients (p<0.001). Other local and systemic adverse experiences were similar between groups.<br/> CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination of children aged 12-59 months with two doses of PHiD-CV two to six months apart was immunogenic, reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage and was well-tolerated. Administration of PHiD-CV would be expected to provide effective protection against vaccine-type disease.<br/> TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01028326.<br/> : The Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), located on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya, was established in 2000 as a record of births, pregnancies, migration events and deaths and is maintained by 4-monthly household visits. The study area was selected to capture the majority of patients admitted to Kilifi District Hospital. The KHDSS has 260 000 residents and the hospital admits 4400 paediatric patients and 3400 adult patients per year. At the hospital, morbidity events are linked in real time by a computer search of the population register. Linked surveillance was extended to KHDSS vaccine clinics in 2008. KHDSS data have been used to define the incidence of hospital presentation with childhood infectious diseases (e.g. rotavirus diarrhoea, pneumococcal disease), to test the association between genetic risk factors (e.g. thalassaemia and sickle cell disease) and infectious diseases, to define the community prevalence of chronic diseases (e.g. epilepsy), to evaluate access to health care and to calculate the operational effectiveness of major public health interventions (e.g. conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine). Rapport with residents is maintained through an active programme of community engagement. A system of collaborative engagement exists for sharing data on survival, morbidity, socio-economic status and vaccine coverage.<br/> BACKGROUND: Herd protection and serotype replacement disease following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) are attributable to the vaccine\'s impact on colonization. Prior to vaccine introduction in Kenya, we did an epidemiological study to estimate the rate of pneumococcal acquisition, by serotype, in an uncolonized population.<br/> METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were taken from newborns aged ≤ 7 days and weekly thereafter for 13 weeks. Parents, and siblings aged <10 years, were swabbed at monthly intervals. Swabs were transported in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerin and cultured on gentamicin blood agar. Pneumococci were serotyped by the Quellung reaction. We used survival analysis and Cox regression analysis to examine serotype-specific acquisition rates and risk factors and calculated transmission probabilities from the pattern of acquisitions within the family.<br/> RESULTS: Of 1404 infants recruited, 887 were colonized by 3 months of age, with the earliest acquisition detected on the first day of life. The median time to acquisition was 38.5 days. The pneumococcal acquisition rate was 0.0189 acquisitions/day (95% confidence interval, .0177-.0202 acquisitions/day). Serotype-specific acquisition rates varied from 0.00002-0.0025 acquisitions/day among 49 different serotypes. Season, coryza, and exposure to cigarettes, cooking fumes, and other children in the home were each significant risk factors for acquisition. The transmission probability per 30-day duration of contact with a carrier was 0.23 (95% CI, .20-.26).<br/> CONCLUSIONS: Newborn infants in Kilifi have high rates of nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci. Half of these acquisitions involve serotypes not included in any current vaccine. Several risk factors are modifiable through intervention. Newborns represent a consistent population of pneumococcus-naive individuals in which to estimate the impact of PCV on transmission.<br/> OBJECTIVE: To explore excess paediatric mortality after discharge from Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya, and its duration and risk factors.<br/> METHODS: Hospital and demographic data were used to describe post-discharge mortality and survival probability in children aged < 15 years, by age group and clinical syndrome. Cox regression models were developed to identify risk factors.<br/> FINDINGS: In 2004-2008, approximately 111,000 children were followed for 555,000 person-years. We analysed 14,971 discharges and 535 deaths occurring within 365 days of discharge. Mortality was higher in the post-discharge cohort than in the community cohort (age-adjusted rate ratio, RR: 7.7; 95% confidence interval, CI: 6.6-8.9) and declined little over time. An increased post-discharge mortality hazard was found in children aged < 5 years with the following: weight-for-age Z score < -4 (hazard ratio, HR: 6.5); weight-for-age Z score > -4 but < -3 (HR: 3.4); hypoxia (HR: 2.3); bacteraemia (HR: 1.8); hepatomegaly (HR: 2.3); jaundice (HR: 1.8); hospital stay > 13 days (HR: 1.8). Older age was protective (reference < 1 month): 6-23 months, HR: 0.8; 2-4 years, HR: 0.6. Children with at least one risk factor accounted for 545 (33%) of the 1655 annual discharges and for 39 (47%) of the 83 discharge-associated deaths.<br/> CONCLUSION: Hospital admission selects vulnerable children with a sustained increased risk of dying. The risk factors identified provide an empiric basis for effective outpatient follow-up.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Faculty of Public Health and Policy > Dept of Global Health and Development
PubMed ID: 22084510
Web of Science ID: 295707700010
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/1152780


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