A primary care level algorithm for identifying HIV-infected adolescents in populations at high risk through mother-to-child transmission


Ferrand, RA; Weiss, HA; Nathoo, K; Ndhlovu, CE; Mungofa, S; Munyati, S; Bandason, T; Gibb, DM; Corbett, EL; (2011) A primary care level algorithm for identifying HIV-infected adolescents in populations at high risk through mother-to-child transmission. Tropical medicine & international health, 16 (3). pp. 349-355. ISSN 1360-2276 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02708.x

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To present an algorithm for primary-care health workers for identifying HIV-infected adolescents in populations at high risk through mother-to-child transmission. METHODS Five hundred and six adolescent (10-18 years) attendees to two primary care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe, were recruited. A randomly extracted 'training' data set (n = 251) was used to generate an algorithm using variables identified as associated with HIV through multivariable logistic regression. Performance characteristics of the algorithm were evaluated in the remaining ('test') records (n = 255) at different HIV prevalence rates. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 17%, and infection was independently associated with client-reported orphanhood, past hospitalization, skin problems, presenting with sexually transmitted infection and poor functional ability. Classifying adolescents as requiring HIV testing if they reported > 1 of these five criteria had 74% sensitivity and 80% specificity for HIV, with the algorithm correctly predicting the HIV status of 79% of participants. In low-HIV-prevalence settings (< 2%), the algorithm would have a high negative predictive value (>= 99.5%) and result in an estimated 60% decrease in the number of people needing to test to identify one HIV-infected individual, compared with universal testing. CONCLUSIONS Our simple algorithm can identify which individuals are likely to be HIV infected with sufficient accuracy to provide a screening tool for use in settings not already implementing universal testing policies among this age-group, for example immigrants to low-HIV-prevalence countries.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: HIV, Primary Health Care, adolescent, mother-to-child transmission, PRIMARY-HEALTH-CARE, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY, COST-EFFECTIVENESS, GROWTH, REFERENCE, OLDER CHILDREN, UK, MANAGEMENT, DIAGNOSIS, MORTALITY, ZIMBABWE
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Research Centre: Centre for Maternal, Reproductive and Child Health (MARCH)
Tropical Epidemiology Group
PubMed ID: 21176006
Web of Science ID: 287823500012
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/1139

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