Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine on Radiologically-Confirmed Pneumonia in Young Children in Pakistan.


Khowaja, AR; Mohiuddin, S; Cohen, AL; Mirza, W; Nadeem, N; Zuberi, T; Salam, B; Mubarak, F; Rizvi, B; Husen, Y; Pardhan, K; Khan, KM; Raza, SJ; Zuberi, HK; Mustafa, S; Sheikh, SH; Nizamani, A; Lohana, H; Mulholland, K; Zell, E; Hajjeh, R; Bosan, A; Zaidi, AK; Pakistan Hib Vaccine Study Group, ; (2013) Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine on Radiologically-Confirmed Pneumonia in Young Children in Pakistan. The Journal of pediatrics, 163 (1 Suppl). S79-S85.e1. ISSN 0022-3476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.03.034

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE The effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in preventing severe pneumonia in Asian children has been questioned, and many large Asian countries yet to introduce Hib conjugate vaccine in immunization programs. The primary objective of this study was to assess Hib conjugate vaccine effectiveness (VE) on radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in children born after introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine in Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN A matched case-control study enrolled cases of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in several hospitals serving low-income populations during 2009-2011. Cases were matched by age and season with 3 hospital and 5 neighborhood controls. Pneumonia was diagnosed using standardized World Health Organization criteria for chest radiograph interpretation. Matched OR were estimated for VE. RESULTS A total of 1027 children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia were enrolled; 975 cases, 2925 hospital controls, and 4875 neighborhood controls were analyzed. The coverage for 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Hib conjugate vaccine was 13.7%, 18%, and 22.7% in cases, hospital controls and neighborhood controls, respectively. Estimated Hib VE for radiologically-confirmed pneumonia was 62% with 3 doses of vaccine using hospital controls and 70% using neighborhood controls. CONCLUSIONS Hib conjugate vaccine prevented a significant fraction of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Maximizing impact on child survival needs improved immunization coverage.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Research Centre: Centre for Maternal, Reproductive and Child Health (MARCH)
PubMed ID: 23773598
Web of Science ID: 320652700013
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/1100369

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